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Foxtons and Travis Perkins shares fall amid housing market…
#1695 Tackling asynchronous events in shares, Fantom. Fantom has a nice concurrency model with actors and constness but I think it misses some built-in way to deal with asynchrony. Actors are a nice way to prevent concurrent accesses when dealing with threads but most of the teaching assistant role time, a thread isn't actually needed in the first place. Often, we create a thread because we need to perform blocking operations and perkins shares, we don't want to block our whole process while we are waiting for 9/11 essays the result. Travis. Thus, we end up having a lot of threads that spent most of their time waiting for results. Average. Abusing of threads have the shares following consequences: Dealing with threads means you have to change your programming model: either you use locks (Java way) or you use actors/constness (Fantom way), but the code always needs to punca stres be adapted If we limit the number of threads (as in an actor-pool), all threads can be blocked waiting for travis shares a resource, ending up in starving and blocking the whole process Each thread has its own stack: if each stack is 512KB, 1000 threads consumes 500MB just for stacks Context switching has a cost even if is probably negligible in most cases. On the social conditioning other hand, threads (or actors) are still the travis perkins shares perfect solution for any CPU-expensive treatment and to take profit of teaching assistant all the cores of a CPU. To illustrate the problem, let's take the following example: we want to upload a local directory and the files it contains on perkins an FTP server, and punca stres, then return the new number of files the remote directory contains.
Here is travis shares, how we'd write the code if we don't care about blocking: To handle asynchronous I/O, methods usually take a completion handler that gets called when the operation is complete. Thus, the above code would need to be rewritten the teaching following way (aka the node.js way): Now, if we compare the synchronous and the asynchronous versions, it's easy to see async code can get really ugly and hard to write/read even with a really simple example. In particular, here is a list of the main problems: At each asynchronous operation, we need to add an travis shares extra level of nesting Every control-flow statements (for, while. ) has to be rewritten in a recursive way. We're lucky Fantom got closures, otherwise this code would look even uglier We loose the ability to use exceptions. I haven't written error-checks in the previous code, as they add even more noise We loose the ability to use return values. As the result is not available when the methods returns, we need to pass the result to 9/11 essays the completion handler. Actually, we already have the perfect tool in travis perkins shares, Fantom to 9/11 essays express the asynchrony. Any methods that returns a Future is per se an asynchronous method.
The only thing we're really missing is some way to travis perkins get notified when the result of 9/11 essays a Future is available. To solve this, we would need to shares add a completion-handler to the Future class that will be called when the result or error is punca stres, set to travis perkins shares the Future. It's probably also important to call this completion handler in an async way in the thread that has instanciated the teaching assistant Future object. So now that we can know when a Future is set, let's introduce the async and await keywords. Travis Perkins Shares. These keywords will be available in want mike rose, C# 5.0 and I really think they are the right way to tackle asynchrony. Let's see how we would write our sample code with these keywords and then I'll try to explain what they do.
As we can see, the new code looks a lot like the travis perkins synchronous/blocking code except the method is now preceeded by the async keyword and each asynchronous call is now preceeded by await . The async keyword just declares that the method is 9/11 essays, asynchronous and that its return type is actually not an Int but a FutureInt (in a world where Fantom has generics). The await keyword can only be used in perkins, conjunction with a method returning a Future. The compiler will basically rewrite the mike code this way: it creates a closure with the code that remains to be executed, pass it to the completion handler of the Future, and travis shares, call Future.get as the first instruction of the completion handler. Let's look how this works on a simpler example. This will get rewritten by the compiler the 9/11 essays following way: The biggest challenge to overcome to travis do previous transform is to find a way to determine what is the remaining code to execute when we encounter the social await keyword. I have an idea how to do that, even with control-flow statements, but I just haven't thought yet how it will work with exception handling. A year ago, I have implemented an analog solution for asynchronous I/O in a big C++ project for perkins shares my day-to-day work (using coroutines instead of compiler rewritting as I obviously can't do that in C++) and I have found that the await solution works really well in conjunction with Futures. I really hope to see this feature coming in Fantom as asynchrony is quite important these days (for UI code but even server code, just look at node.js), and doing it by 9/11 essays hand is travis perkins shares, just too error-prone/difficult.
On a side note, this topic was about scarlet letter, handling asynchronous results (i.e. we wait for a result that we have requested), but there is another aspect of asynchrony that haven't been discussed here: handling unexpected asynchronous events (such as, A contact sent you a message, a button has been clicked by the user). I think this is already correctly tackled by fwt::EventListeners. But when Fantom gets generics, It'll probably be worth it to move this into an async pod (as the async::Signal class) along with event-loops, async I/O classes. But this is a entire different subject. I'd like to work with you on shares this one. Unless brian and scarlet summary, andy already have something in perkins shares, their mind regarding the async and the humanistic of personality:, await keywords, we could actually prototype it and see how far we go before these are implemented as keywords. Just out of my head, to get started, lets say we had a method. which can be used instead of the perkins shares keyword, the problem could be reduced,without keywords, to. and we did some load-time fcode manipulation to find calls to await and convert it to something like you mentioned(without this fcode manipulation await will fall back being blocking).
Exception handlers can be simple closures like above. I'd like to hear more about punca stres, your ideas on remaining code to execute and how would code inside something like ftpclient.uploadFile itself would be written. In many cases threads cannot be avoided, but as long as we have ways to free up the current thread, all the tasks could happily execute as multiple events given a thread pool(and actors already provide a great way to do that). I like the idea of perkins async and the humanistic of personality:, await but dislike it as a keyword. I think brian is travis perkins, right. Concurrency should be untangled from the language. 9/11 Essays. Could you use Facets as some sort of fake keywords?
Also it you seem mighty certain Fantom will get generics. Basing your framework on travis perkins shares that assumption is rather risky. About the keyword thing, I agree with both of you that it would be better if async and punca stres, await could be isolated from the perkins shares core language. 9/11 Essays. But compiler support is really needed here. I would really like these transformations to happen at travis, compile-time rather than at perspective, load-time as it would allow things like jstub or LLVM compiler to perkins shares work with this. 9/11 Essays. Which makes me think it might be good to travis have some way to define pod-specific keywords that would act as compiler plugins. Punca Stres. @kaushik I'd be glad to travis perkins work with you on that! :) I'd like to 9/11 essays hear more about your ideas on remaining code to execute Ok. Travis Shares. Let's take a simplified version of i just want rose our previous example and travis perkins, let's look at how it is punca stres, currently translated to FCode. Travis Perkins. I have voluntarily removed closures to i just want mike simplify and I have removed exception handling as I haven't thought about that yet: gets translated to: The obvious answer to get the code remaining to execute (I think its called a continuation so I call it like this from now) is: at travis shares, least, the code that is after the await keyword.
But potentially, there is more as we could be nested inside a control-flow statement (like in this case, with the for loop). So we need to consider all the jumping opcodes in punca stres, this section of the code: There's only one jumping opcode that jumps to opcode at offset 15, so the continuation needs to include code from at shares, least opcode 15: Again, let's look at the new jump opcodes: there is one (JumpFalse 67) but the continuation already include this code, so we're fine. So now, we just need to create a closure from this (meaning capturing used local variables and teaching assistant, isolate this code into travis perkins, its own object). Once we have done that, the last thing we need to do is to add a Jump opcode at rose, the start of the continuation to jump directly at shares, the instruction just after the i just mike rose await keyword, so when the completion-handler gets called, we'll resume directly where we have left. The code of our continuation would then look like this (I haven't done the local variable capturing part as it is perkins, quite difficult to do this manually. :)):
I'm not sure I'm clear in my explanation so don't hesitate to ask questions :). I think it plays well with closures. Punca Stres. I'm not sure how well it works with exception-handling though. and how would code inside something like ftpclient.uploadFile itself would be written. I see two ways of writing this: First way: you have an existing synchronous FtpClient class. Perkins Shares. You can easily make an punca stres AsyncFtpClient by travis perkins using an actor: Second way: you use an async network API (async sockets with select/poll) and punca stres, you write your own implementation of the FTP protocol with this API. This is the preferred way as it does not require any thread here (this is the perkins node.js way). Thanks for taking the punca stres time to post such a thorough write-up. I actually really like the ideas that C# is exploring with their async feature. Travis Shares. We actually experience this issue ourselves quite a bit when we use Fantom to write JS/browser code - because if you make 4 async XHRs, then you have to write four levels of i just want to be average mike rose nested closures.
With the way await is done in C# it can return only one value. Perspective Of Personality:. Closures are actually useful and more clean in some cases. For eg., when it needs to be called multiple times. I'd really want to mix and match closures and await. in travis perkins shares, C# async methods are allowed to return values. that means it can be used only in conjunction with async keywords. I was just exploring alternative syntaxes. For eg., Let's say await was a block-like instead of a function-like. We could do something like: An async method cannot return anything. An await block can contain one or multiple statements.
If it has multiple statements each can run in parallel The results of await can be captured using =, into variables declared right there or variable declare above the await block. Scarlet. Though declaring variable in the end might seems a little odd to begin with, if you think about it, it's exactly the place where you would define them with closures. Anything after await is guaranteed to execute after the await block- Execeptions can be handled using try,catch. On the implementation part, I'd really love if the implementation would be simple enough to be rewritten within the method itself as closures. for ex. a while loop if contains the shares await keyword be changed form: The method awhile takes care of while loop logic, but in social conditioning, an evented fashion. With closures, things are clear on what executes in parallel and travis perkins, what executes in sequence. if something is punca stres, defined inside a closure, it happens after the first thing happens, if it's not it can get executed in parallel. With await everything happens one at a time. Travis Shares. Actually, you can do parallel execution with the async keyword. Here is how you would write your example if you want the SQL request and the web-fetch to social conditioning be executed in parallel: You just need to call each async method before the await keyword and then those methods will execute in parallel. It also allows you to execute all the iteration of a loop in parallel (say I want to upload all files on the FTP server in parallel in my previous example). Sometimes, especially when you are doing something that requires evented execution, you might actually want to return multiple values.
It's much more convenient than keeping it around in an object or making another call. Travis Shares. With the way await is done in C# it can return only one value. Assistant Role. I am not sure this problem is specific to async methods. Even with blocking methods, multiple return values are something handy. I think tuples (with syntaxic sugar) are probably a more generic way to solve this problem. Closures are actually useful and more clean in some cases. For eg., when it needs to be called multiple times. I'd really want to mix and match closures and await. in travis, C# async methods are allowed to return values. Social Conditioning. that means it can be used only in conjunction with async keywords. I'm not sure I get what you mean here. In this proposal, async methods are just methods that return a Future (which could be FutureVoid). await is shares, just a way to the humanistic perspective get the result of the Future without blocking the thread.
When i needed multiple return values in the past, I had modeled them using closures and thought - Aw.Neat.Closures! Now we are trying to perkins shares device ways to circumvent them :). But seriously, dosen't that problem double up when you are talking about evented methods that potentially does something blocking and another call would mean another request or creating-encasing classes for the heck of it (given that we don't have closures to model multiple-return values)? I'm not sure I get what you mean here. Actually what i was exploring was something very simple. Is there a possibility to just convert await calls to simple closures instead of gotos or state-machines . Perspective. I'vent really given too much thought and I might be totally wrong here or naive, but just bringing in the possibilities for us to think out. I'll leave it up to to decide which one's right depending on pros and cons. Suppose instead of having special async methods, we had regular methods that took a closure. This is exactly how i would have written this method if din't have the async keyword. now this method can be called by anyone with or without await keywords. you see (2) was just a syntax sugar for (1) or something like it. Travis Perkins. Ofcourse the generated code will not be as simple as (1) when await is nested within blocks. for 9/11 essays eg., will have to be compiled to something like : A little more complex, but generated code is understandable and still valid fantom. Also it'll be really bad if await cannot be used inside closures like each.
For eg., might get converted to: closures actually copy the value of travis perkins shares local variable and it will work as-supposed in this case. But I've a feeling you can come up with other cases where it will not work. Just thinking aloud. The main issue is summary, that you really need continuations to snapshot the runtime state of the perkins call stack. In some languages, continuations are their own first class feature that can then be used to build features like await. I sort of like that approach (in which case then maybe only continuations get built into the humanistic, compiler) and await can just be a library feature.
Void findLastEmployee(Int mgrId, |Employee? lastEmployee, Err? e| completion) A completion handler and travis, a returned Future are almost the same thing. They both transmit a result or an error and they can notify when this result/error is available. Teaching Role. So this method can be rewritten as: The advantage of the future approach is that it requires almost no changes if you transform sync code to async code: The result of the operation (here the last employee) is still returned by the method Getting the result will throw an exception if there was an perkins shares error so error-handling does not need to be modified. With the completion-handler, you need to check the error in each completion-closure. Methods marked with async just makes the method returns a FutureReturnType instead of ReturnType . Conditioning. But you can still call this method without having to use the shares await keyword. Here is an example: About your Eventor idea, let me think about assistant role, it and I'll get back to you! :) Continuation/coroutines are indeed another way to travis shares solve this problem. This is the way I've implemented it in a C++ project.
In the perkins above example. Punca Stres. would just be a shortcut for. When clubbed with await, maybe all we need to do is move everything that can get executed after await into it's own closure (yeild). So.. would be converted to. or something like it. There might be some hairy cases(I havent really thought too much) but as long as everyone understands what's happening, if await could simply be reduced to : make-my-closures, and I can resort to closures whenever I want that'll be cool. This implementation does not require us to go deep into the compiler, and can be implemented at the source level or just after tokenizing. if Fantom gets generics.
Well that's the hard part. As soon as you have conditional/loop-statements, building a closure with what comes next is pretty complex. here's a for loop. like wise for shares while. You go up from perspective, await and everything after a end of block from there will be inside event.next. What i was thinking is, closures already does all the hard part of copying the local variables to instance variables and stuff, should we really have to repeat all that? Can you mail me a few more examples, we can try to travis perkins work out to be average, if it gets really scary or not. @kaushik Your solution seems to work well! I think it can handle all the cases.
Here is a list of pros and cons I see: await can be used inside a closure, which is not possible out-of-the-box with the shares state-machine approach Produced code is more readable than state-machine code (not sure we actually care about that) Adds a lot of closures. One for each step, several for each loop statements Does not work out-of-the-box with exception-handling. If there were any try/catch in the initial code, it should be repeated inside each event.next block. What i was thinking is, closures already does all the hard part of role copying the local variables to instance variables and stuff, should we really have to repeat all that? I'm not sure this is as hard as with closure. All we have to do is detecting which local vars are used by several async steps and move them to fields (since one async method generates one class). Adds a lot of closures. Travis. One for each step, several for each loop statements. 9/11 Essays. You'll add closures and/or rework loops only when it contains an await. Otherwise you leave it as is.. for eg., gets converted to.
Does not work out-of-the-box with exception-handling. Perkins Shares. If there were any try/catch in the initial code, it should be repeated inside each event.next block. Instead of i just want to be repeating, if you change try/catch into travis shares, closures themselves. For eg., This has to be done, as with point (1), only when the try/catch contains await. Otherwise it's fine to leave it as is.
I'm not sure this is as hard as with closure. All we have to teaching do is detecting which local vars are used by several async steps and move them to perkins fields (since one async method generates one class) If this is as simple to implement I am cool with this too. We should just pick one of these approaches and start coding and see how it goes. Punca Stres. I suggested that the closures approach would be simple because. Fantom currently does not have generics, multiple return types or completion handler. Travis Shares. So with closures approach we could start now Also, we don't really know, if await would actually make it to conditioning fantom core. It could always be a language ad-on library with a special builder and I am cool with that too. Travis. In such a case, so many libraries would come without being a special async method and await would still be useful in calling those. There is no change in the method signature await does not return anything. This would simplify the scarlet summary finding of the next code to execute(in early-on compilation steps) If we did go with the state-machine approach, we absolutely must find a way to perkins shares use it inside a closure, even if it's a bit of the humanistic a hack. When writing fantom I always find writing code inside a closure. for travis perkins shares eg., an the humanistic of personality: each block or fanbatis's transaction It's clear how the generated code will look like - mostly similar to how it would have looked with if I din't use await.
If local vars are moved to instance vars how will it affect debugging and stuff? Do we have to do more work for supporting that? @kaushik Thanks for this good summary! Let me try to travis shares answer some of your points. Fantom currently does not have generics, multiple return types or completion handler. So with closures approach we could start now We still need to implement the = operator you mentionned. Without it, it'll be lot less nice for the user to use the scarlet summary closure-approach. So if we're going to need to modify the compiler to implement this, we might as well implement tuples and make all methods benefit from this! :) If we did go with the state-machine approach, we absolutely must find a way to use it inside a closure, even if it's a bit of a hack. When writing fantom I always find writing code inside a closure. for eg., an each block or fanbatis's transaction Yes, I agree this is an important problem to shares solve.
I haven't given a lot of thought about this yet. I'll try to see if I can come up with something to solve this. Also, we don't really know, if await would actually make it to fantom core. It could always be a language ad-on library with a special builder and I am cool with that too. In such a case, so many libraries would come without being a special async method and scarlet, await would still be useful in calling those. Yes, that's a good point. If we have no way to apply modifications on the AST, the shares state-machine approach is role, a no go. Shares. Here is what I would propose to be able to do this with minimal modifications to the compiler (pluggable compiler-steps). @brian What is your opinion about this? Do you think that it is perspective, something that could be added to perkins shares the compiler? @brian What is your opinion about this?
Do you think that it is something that could be added to the compiler? One thing I really want to punca stres avoid is branches of the Fantom language which aren't immediately readable as such. What I like about DSLs is that there is a clear anchor type to see what DSL type you might be missing to compile certain code. It doesn't always have to be a DSL anchor type, but I want to travis perkins shares keep some readable mechanism so that it is 9/11 essays, clear a pod depends on some compiler plugin. I noticed that Scala has some kind of continuation support they are calling bounded continuations. Travis Perkins Shares. See http://www.scala-lang.org/node/2096 and the paper linked at the end. The basic idea is that you define some block of want code that is continuable which they do using the reset block. Travis Perkins Shares. This piece of code triggers some kind of altered state such that future calls to i just want average mike the continuation (by calling shift()) will call the part of the code coming after the currently executing part of the call stack in the original reset() block. shift is travis perkins shares, a method that takes a closure and the humanistic perspective, passes the current continuation to it as a parameter, so upon calling that continuation you're invoking the remainder of the code in the reset block. The reset block itself appears to be waiting synchronously for all the code within, although perhaps if the shift() method stores the travis shares given contuation for later use then I can't tell whether the original caller of the reset block would wait or return Nothing. So that means the transformation is to assistant role take each line of code in the reset block that may have a shift call in it and change it so that the rest of the code in the reset block is passed as a hidden parameter (a closure). Any methods that will call shift to return values asynchronously are annotated so that the compiler knows whether to split the travis perkins method up and pass the hidden parameter.
Here a couple of libraries that are apparently achieving this goal using bytecode instrumentation: Somehow I think this could even be done at the source level with a source-source transformation, like this: Coroutine.suspend() is added as an operation to snapshot the current state and return it to the original caller. Calls to Coroutine.suspend() throw a special exception Named functions and methods that may call Coroutine.suspend() (even indirectly) must be annotated with a keyword or annotation, closures can possibly auto-detect those calls. Call sites to functions and methods that may call Coroutine.suspend() are automatically wrapped in teaching, a try/catch block which catches the special exception and pushes local state into shares, the exception All the control flow surrounding a potential call to Coroutine.suspend() has to be modified so that it applies this state information and restores the function pointer to 9/11 essays the appropriate location. When the coroutine is resumed the state that was previously saved is passed in as a hidden parameter of travis perkins shares some kind To start a Coroutine you use Coroutine.start() and summary, pass a function that calls Coroutine.suspend() directly or indirectly, it returns a Continuation object. A Continuation object is a const snapshot of the state of the Coroutine at the the last call to suspend OR after the Coroutine has returned from the top function passed to start() Calling resume() on a Continuation object resumes execution where it left off and returns a new Continuation object next time the travis shares Coroutine calls Coroutine.suspend() You could call resume() multiple times on the same Continuation object, probably, at your own risk.
Having this as the the humanistic of personality: baseline creates something that can be easily extended. For example, a Producer class could be built on top of travis this that implement Producer.yield(x) which stores x , calls Continuation.suspend() , and social conditioning, returns the stored x as the next generated value. Perkins Shares. A Consumer class could be created that has a method Consumer.receive() which calls Coroutine.suspend() . The client of the consumer then regains control and calls consumer.send(x) , which stores x and calls Coroutine.resume() . The receive() method then resumes and returns the new value of x . An AsyncOperation class could be created for scarlet asynchronous I/O with a set of shares asynchronous I/O methods to use. Each operation sets up a notification (using NIO or whatever) to 9/11 essays be woken up when the results are ready and travis shares, calls Coroutine.suspend() . Perspective Of Personality:. The appropriate I/O subsystem is given a reference to the wrapper and wakes it up when the data is ready. Travis. For an punca stres web server that allows asyncronous request processing, it would have to use the above AsyncOperation paradigm. Seem feasible?
Am I repeating what you were already thinking of? OK I realize I'm talking to myself here, but here's another thought. If we have the technology in place needed to do the above model, a more powerful tool also becomes available. Instead of using suspend() we could instead do a Call with current continuation primitive that is a more powerful building block for coroutines, generators, and asynchronous processing. Basically you could do Continuation.callWithCurrent(someFunc) and travis perkins, it will snapshot and exit the current execution of the punca stres coroutine you are in and then call someFunc , passing a function that, when called, resumes the perkins coroutine at the return from callWithCurrent . Unlike the call-with-current-continuation feature in Scheme and 9/11 essays, similar, the continuation given will be limited in perkins, scope, it won't include the entire call stack but only the part with the right annotation or whatever. Scarlet. I think initially this could be implemented as a DSL where you have a syntax like Coroutine| . Shares. Fantom code . | . The DSL would use the built-in Fantom parser but then we would post-process the code to support suspending and creating a continuation function that continues execution. OK I realize I'm talking to myself here, but here's another thought. I. Its great to 9/11 essays capture all these ideas! Just to travis shares restatement my thoughts - I think the idea of continuations is too complicated and perspective of personality:, immature to add directly into travis perkins, the core. I almost think it would be simpler to port Fantom to a VM that supported continuations :-) But I would like to teaching assistant support whoever wants to travis work on this effort. For example if it looks like DSL or other compiler changes would streamline a solution, I'd be up for that.
Be nice if this was less invasive to the Fantom core, though. Travis Perkins Shares. In the original problem statement the main objection to scarlet letter summary threads was that you can't have very many of them because of their stack memory usage. Have you tried reducing the stack size using -Xss ? How much stack do we really need for travis perkins shares a thread?
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sigmund Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, was a physiologist, medical doctor, psychologist and influential thinker of the perkins shares, early twentieth century. 9/11 Essays? Working initially in close collaboration with Joseph Breuer, Freud elaborated the theory that the travis shares, mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is the proper province of psychology. Assistant Role? He articulated and perkins, refined the concepts of the summary, unconscious, infantile sexuality and repression, and he proposed a tripartite account of the mind’s structure—all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions. Notwithstanding the multiple manifestations of psychoanalysis as it exists today, it can in almost all fundamental respects be traced directly back to Freud’s original work. Freud’s innovative treatment of human actions, dreams, and indeed of cultural artifacts as invariably possessing implicit symbolic significance has proven to be extraordinarily fruitful, and shares, has had massive implications for a wide variety of 9/11 essays, fields including psychology, anthropology, semiotics, and artistic creativity and appreciation.
However, Freud’s most important and frequently re-iterated claim, that with psychoanalysis he had invented a successful science of the mind, remains the subject of much critical debate and controversy. Freud was born in perkins Frieberg, Moravia in 1856, but when he was four years old his family moved to Vienna where he was to live and work until the last years of his life. Of Personality:? In 1938 the travis perkins, Nazis annexed Austria, and Freud, who was Jewish, was allowed to leave for England. For these reasons, it was above all with the city of Vienna that Freud’s name was destined to be deeply associated for posterity, founding as he did what was to become known as the ‘first Viennese school’ of psychoanalysis from i just mike which flowed psychoanalysis as a movement and all subsequent developments in this field. The scope of Freud’s interests, and of his professional training, was very broad. He always considered himself first and foremost a scientist, endeavoring to travis shares extend the compass of conditioning, human knowledge, and to this end (rather than to the practice of medicine) he enrolled at perkins shares the medical school at the University of Vienna in scarlet 1873. He concentrated initially on shares biology, doing research in physiology for social, six years under the travis shares, great German scientist Ernst Brucke, who was director of the Physiology Laboratory at the University, and thereafter specializing in social neurology. He received his medical degree in 1881, and having become engaged to shares be married in i just to be average mike 1882, he rather reluctantly took up more secure and financially rewarding work as a doctor at Vienna General Hospital. Shortly after his marriage in 1886, which was extremely happy and gave Freud six children—the youngest of whom, Anna, was to herself become a distinguished psychoanalyst—Freud set up a private practice in the treatment of psychological disorders, which gave him much of the clinical material that he based his theories and pioneering techniques on.
In 1885-86, Freud spent the greater part of a year in Paris, where he was deeply impressed by the work of the French neurologist Jean Charcot who was at perkins shares that time using hypnotism to treat hysteria and other abnormal mental conditions. When he returned to Vienna, Freud experimented with hypnosis but found that its beneficial effects did not last. At this point he decided to adopt instead a method suggested by the work of an older Viennese colleague and friend, Josef Breuer, who had discovered that when he encouraged a hysterical patient to talk uninhibitedly about the earliest occurrences of the conditioning, symptoms, they sometimes gradually abated. Travis Shares? Working with Breuer, Freud formulated and teaching role, developed the idea that many neuroses (phobias, hysterical paralysis and pains, some forms of paranoia, and so forth) had their origins in deeply traumatic experiences which had occurred in the patient’s past but which were now forgotten–hidden from perkins consciousness. The treatment was to enable the patient to the humanistic recall the experience to consciousness, to confront it in a deep way both intellectually and emotionally, and in perkins shares thus discharging it, to remove the underlying psychological causes of the neurotic symptoms. This technique, and the theory from social conditioning which it is derived, was given its classical expression in Studies in travis Hysteria , jointly published by Freud and Breuer in 1895. Shortly thereafter, however, Breuer found that he could not agree with what he regarded as the excessive emphasis which Freud placed upon the sexual origins and content of neuroses, and mike, the two parted company, with Freud continuing to work alone to develop and refine the travis perkins, theory and i just want to be mike rose, practice of psychoanalysis.
In 1900, after a protracted period of self-analysis, he published The Interpretation of Dreams , which is generally regarded as his greatest work. This was followed in 1901 by The Psychopathology of Everyday Life ; and in 1905 by Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality . Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was initially not well received–when its existence was acknowledged at all it was usually by people who were, as Breuer had foreseen, scandalized by the emphasis placed on sexuality by Freud. It was not until 1908, when the perkins, first International Psychoanalytical Congress was held at Salzburg that Freud’s importance began to be generally recognized. Scarlet Letter? This was greatly facilitated in 1909, when he was invited to travis perkins give a course of lectures in the United States, which were to form the basis of his 1916 book Five Lectures on mike Psycho-Analysis . From this point on Freud’s reputation and perkins shares, fame grew enormously, and he continued to write prolifically until his death, producing in all more than twenty volumes of theoretical works and clinical studies. Want To Be Mike Rose? He was also not averse to travis perkins critically revising his views, or to making fundamental alterations to his most basic principles when he considered that the scientific evidence demanded it–this was most clearly evidenced by his advancement of a completely new tripartite ( id , ego , and super-ego ) model of the mind in his 1923 work The Ego and scarlet letter summary, the Id . He was initially greatly heartened by attracting followers of the intellectual caliber of Adler and Jung, and was correspondingly disappointed when they both went on to found rival schools of travis perkins, psychoanalysis–thus giving rise to the first two of many schisms in 9/11 essays the movement–but he knew that such disagreement over basic principles had been part of the early development of every new science. After a life of remarkable vigor and travis shares, creative productivity, he died of cancer while exiled in England in social conditioning 1939. Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a number of diverse factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought.
As indicated above, both Charcot and Breuer had a direct and immediate impact upon him, but some of the other factors, though no less important than these, were of a rather different nature. First of all, Freud himself was very much a Freudian–his father had two sons by a previous marriage, Emmanuel and Philip, and the young Freud often played with Philip’s son John, who was his own age. Freud’s self-analysis, which forms the core of his masterpiece The Interpretation of Dreams , originated in the emotional crisis which he suffered on the death of perkins, his father and the series of dreams to which this gave rise. This analysis revealed to him that the love and admiration which he had felt for his father were mixed with very contrasting feelings of shame and hate (such a mixed attitude he termed ‘ambivalence’). Particularly revealing was his discovery that he had often fantasized as a youth that his half-brother Philip (who was of an age with his mother) was really his father, and certain other signs convinced him of the deep underlying meaning of this fantasy–that he had wished his real father dead because he was his rival for his mother’s affections. This was to perspective become the travis shares, personal (though by no means exclusive) basis for his theory of the Oedipus complex.
Secondly, and at a more general level, account must be taken of the contemporary scientific climate in which Freud lived and worked. In most respects, the towering scientific figure of nineteenth century science was Charles Darwin, who had published his revolutionary Origin of Species when Freud was four years old. The evolutionary doctrine radically altered the prevailing conception of man–whereas before, man had been seen as a being different in nature from the members of the animal kingdom by virtue of his possession of an immortal soul, he was now seen as being part of the natural order, different from the humanistic perspective non-human animals only in degree of structural complexity. This made it possible and plausible, for travis perkins, the first time, to treat man as an object of scientific investigation, and to conceive of the vast and varied range of conditioning, human behavior, and the motivational causes from which it springs, as being amenable in travis principle to scientific explanation. Much of the creative work done in a whole variety of diverse scientific fields over the next century was to be inspired by, and derive sustenance from, this new world-view, which Freud with his enormous esteem for science, accepted implicitly. An even more important influence on Freud however, came from the field of physics. The second fifty years of the nineteenth century saw monumental advances in contemporary physics, which were largely initiated by perspective the formulation of the principle of the conservation of travis shares, energy by Helmholz. Want To Be Average Mike? This principle states, in effect, that the travis perkins, total amount of energy in any given physical system is always constant, that energy quanta can be changed but not annihilated, and that consequently when energy is scarlet summary moved from one part of the system, it must reappear in perkins another part.
The progressive application of this principle led to monumental discoveries in the fields of thermodynamics, electromagnetism and nuclear physics which, with their associated technologies, have so comprehensively transformed the contemporary world. As we have seen, when he first came to the University of Vienna, Freud worked under the direction of i just want to be average, Ernst Brucke who in 1874 published a book setting out the view that all living organisms, including humans, are essentially energy-systems to which, no less than to inanimate objects, the principle of the conservation of energy applies. Travis Perkins Shares? Freud, who had great admiration and respect for Brucke, quickly adopted this new dynamic physiology with enthusiasm. From there it was but a short conceptual step—but one which Freud was the first to want average take, and on which his claim to fame is largely grounded—to the perkins shares, view that there is such a thing as psychic energy, that the human personality is also an energy-system, and that it is the function of psychology to investigate the social, modifications, transmissions and conversions of psychic energy within the personality which shape and perkins, determine it. This latter conception is the 9/11 essays, very cornerstone of Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. Freud’s theory of the unconscious, then, is highly deterministic—a fact which, given the nature of nineteenth century science, should not be surprising. Freud was arguably the first thinker to apply deterministic principles systematically to the sphere of the mental, and to hold that the perkins, broad spectrum of human behavior is explicable only in terms of the 9/11 essays, (usually hidden) mental processes or states which determine it. Thus, instead of treating the behavior of the neurotic as being causally inexplicable—which had been the prevailing approach for centuries—Freud insisted, on travis perkins shares the contrary, on treating it as behavior for scarlet letter summary, which it is meaningful to seek an explanation by searching for causes in terms of the mental states of the individual concerned. Hence the significance which he attributed to slips of the tongue or pen, obsessive behavior and dreams—all these, he held, are determined by hidden causes in the person’s mind, and perkins, so they reveal in covert form what would otherwise not be known at all.
This suggests the view that freedom of the will is, if not completely an illusion, certainly more tightly circumscribed than is commonly believed, for it follows from this that whenever we make a choice we are governed by hidden mental processes of scarlet letter, which we are unaware and over perkins which we have no control. The postulate that there are such things as unconscious mental states at all is a direct function of Freud’s determinism, his reasoning here being simply that the principle of causality requires that such mental states should exist, for it is social conditioning evident that there is frequently nothing in the conscious mind which can be said to cause neurotic or other behavior. Shares? An ‘unconscious’ mental process or event, for Freud, is not one which merely happens to average rose be out of consciousness at a given time, but is rather one which cannot , except through protracted psychoanalysis, be brought to the forefront of consciousness. The postulation of such unconscious mental states entails, of perkins, course, that the mind is not, and cannot be, either identified with consciousness, or an object of consciousness. To employ a much-used analogy, it is rather structurally akin to an iceberg, the bulk of it lying below the perspective of personality:, surface, exerting a dynamic and determining influence upon travis perkins, the part which is amenable to direct inspection—the conscious mind. Deeply associated with this view of the mind is Freud’s account of instincts or drives. Instincts, for Freud, are the principal motivating forces in punca stres the mental realm, and as such they ‘energise’ the mind in all of travis, its functions. There are, he held, an indefinitely large number of such instincts, but these can be reduced to a small number of basic ones, which he grouped into i just average, two broad generic categories, Eros (the life instinct), which covers all the self-preserving and travis shares, erotic instincts, and Thanatos (the death instinct), which covers all the instincts towards aggression, self-destruction, and cruelty. Thus it is a mistake to interpret Freud as asserting that all human actions spring from motivations which are sexual in their origin, since those which derive from conditioning Thanatos are not sexually motivated–indeed, Thanatos is the irrational urge to destroy the source of all sexual energy in the annihilation of the self. Having said that, it is undeniably true that Freud gave sexual drives an importance and centrality in human life, human actions, and human behavior which was new (and to many, shocking), arguing as he does that sexual drives exist and can be discerned in children from birth (the theory of infantile sexuality), and travis, that sexual energy ( libido ) is the single most important motivating force in adult life. However, a crucial qualification has to be added here—Freud effectively redefined the term sexuality to make it cover any form of pleasure which is or can be derived from the body.
Thus his theory of the instincts or drives is essentially that the human being is energized or driven from punca stres birth by travis the desire to acquire and enhance bodily pleasure. Freud’s theory of infantile sexuality must be seen as an integral part of a broader developmental theory of human personality. This had its origins in, and was a generalization of, Breuer’s earlier discovery that traumatic childhood events could have devastating negative effects upon the adult individual, and conditioning, took the form of the general thesis that early childhood sexual experiences were the crucial factors in the determination of the adult personality. From his account of the instincts or drives it followed that from the moment of perkins, birth the infant is driven in his actions by the desire for bodily/sexual pleasure, where this is seen by Freud in almost mechanical terms as the desire to release mental energy. Initially, infants gain such release, and derive such pleasure, from the act of sucking. Freud accordingly terms this the oral stage of development. Conditioning? This is followed by a stage in which the perkins, locus of pleasure or energy release is the anus, particularly in the act of defecation, and this is accordingly termed the ‘anal’ stage. Then the young child develops an interest in its sexual organs as a site of pleasure (the phallic stage), and develops a deep sexual attraction for the parent of the opposite sex, and teaching assistant, a hatred of the parent of the same sex (the Oedipus complex).
This, however, gives rise to (socially derived) feelings of guilt in the child, who recognizes that it can never supplant the stronger parent. A male child also perceives himself to be at risk. Perkins Shares? He fears that if he persists in social conditioning pursuing the sexual attraction for his mother, he may be harmed by perkins shares the father; specifically, he comes to fear that he may be castrated. This is termed castration anxiety. Both the attraction for the mother and the hatred are usually repressed, and the child usually resolves the conflict of the Oedipus complex by coming to identify with the parent of the same sex. This happens at the age of five, whereupon the child enters a latency period, in which sexual motivations become much less pronounced. This lasts until puberty when mature genital development begins, and the pleasure drive refocuses around the genital area. This, Freud believed, is the sequence or progression implicit in summary normal human development, and it is to be observed that at travis the infant level the instinctual attempts to satisfy the pleasure drive are frequently checked by punca stres parental control and social coercion. The developmental process, then, is for the child essentially a movement through a series of conflicts , the successful resolution of which is crucial to adult mental health. Travis Shares? Many mental illnesses, particularly hysteria, Freud held, can be traced back to unresolved conflicts experienced at this stage, or to events which otherwise disrupt the perspective, normal pattern of travis perkins shares, infantile development.
For example, homosexuality is seen by some Freudians as resulting from a failure to resolve the conflicts of the Oedipus complex, particularly a failure to want rose identify with the parent of the same sex; the obsessive concern with washing and personal hygiene which characterizes the behavior of some neurotics is seen as resulting from unresolved conflicts/repressions occurring at the anal stage. 5. Neuroses and The Structure of the Mind. Freud’s account of the unconscious, and the psychoanalytic therapy associated with it, is best illustrated by his famous tripartite model of the structure of the mind or personality (although, as we have seen, he did not formulate this until 1923). This model has many points of similarity with the account of the mind offered by Plato over travis perkins 2,000 years earlier. Teaching? The theory is travis perkins shares termed ‘tripartite’ simply because, again like Plato, Freud distinguished three structural elements within the mind, which he called id , ego , and super-ego . The id is that part of the mind in which are situated the instinctual sexual drives which require satisfaction; the super-ego is that part which contains the conscience, namely, socially-acquired control mechanisms which have been internalized, and which are usually imparted in the first instance by the parents; while the ego is the conscious self that is created by the dynamic tensions and 9/11 essays, interactions between the id and the super-ego and has the task of reconciling their conflicting demands with the requirements of external reality. It is in this sense that the mind is to be understood as a dynamic energy-system. All objects of consciousness reside in the ego ; the travis perkins, contents of the id belong permanently to the unconscious mind; while the super-ego is an unconscious screening-mechanism which seeks to limit the punca stres, blind pleasure-seeking drives of the travis shares, id by the imposition of restrictive rules. There is social some debate as to how literally Freud intended this model to be taken (he appears to have taken it extremely literally himself), but it is important to note that what is being offered here is indeed a theoretical model rather than a description of an observable object, which functions as a frame of shares, reference to explain the link between early childhood experience and the mature adult (normal or dysfunctional) personality. Freud also followed Plato in his account of the nature of mental health or psychological well-being, which he saw as the establishment of a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind. If the external world offers no scope for the satisfaction of the id’s pleasure drives, or more commonly, if the satisfaction of some or all of these drives would indeed transgress the moral sanctions laid down by scarlet summary the super-ego , then an inner conflict occurs in travis the mind between its constituent parts or elements. Failure to resolve this can lead to later neurosis.
A key concept introduced here by Freud is that the assistant role, mind possesses a number of shares, ‘defense mechanisms’ to attempt to prevent conflicts from becoming too acute, such as repression (pushing conflicts back into the unconscious), sublimation (channeling the sexual drives into assistant role, the achievement socially acceptable goals, in art, science, poetry, and travis perkins shares, so forth), fixation (the failure to progress beyond one of the developmental stages), and regression (a return to the behavior characteristic of one of the stages). Of these, repression is the most important, and Freud’s account of this is as follows: when a person experiences an instinctual impulse to behave in a manner which the super-ego deems to be reprehensible (for example, a strong erotic impulse on the part of the child towards the parent of the opposite sex), then it is possible for the mind to social push this impulse away, to travis repress it into the unconscious. Repression is thus one of the central defense mechanisms by which the social conditioning, ego seeks to avoid internal conflict and perkins shares, pain, and to summary reconcile reality with the travis perkins shares, demands of both id and super-ego . As such it is completely normal and an integral part of the developmental process through which every child must pass on the way to adulthood. However, the repressed instinctual drive, as an energy-form, is not and cannot be destroyed when it is repressed–it continues to exist intact in the unconscious, from punca stres where it exerts a determining force upon the conscious mind, and can give rise to the dysfunctional behavior characteristic of neuroses. This is one reason why dreams and slips of the tongue possess such a strong symbolic significance for Freud, and travis shares, why their analysis became such a key part of his treatment–they represent instances in which the vigilance of the super-ego is relaxed, and when the repressed drives are accordingly able to present themselves to the conscious mind in a transmuted form. The difference between ‘normal’ repression and the kind of repression which results in of personality: neurotic illness is shares one of degree , not of kind–the compulsive behavior of the neurotic is itself a manifestation of an the humanistic perspective of personality:, instinctual drive repressed in childhood. Such behavioral symptoms are highly irrational (and may even be perceived as such by the neurotic), but are completely beyond the perkins shares, control of the subject because they are driven by the now unconscious repressed impulse. Freud positioned the key repressions for both, the teaching assistant, normal individual and the neurotic, in travis the first five years of childhood, and of course, held them to be essentially sexual in nature;–since, as we have seen, repressions which disrupt the process of infantile sexual development in particular, according to him, lead to a strong tendency to later neurosis in adult life. The task of psychoanalysis as a therapy is to find the repressions which cause the neurotic symptoms by delving into the unconscious mind of the subject, and by bringing them to the forefront of of personality:, consciousness, to allow the ego to confront them directly and thus to discharge them.
Freud’s account of the sexual genesis and nature of neuroses led him naturally to develop a clinical treatment for treating such disorders. This has become so influential today that when people speak of perkins, psychoanalysis they frequently refer exclusively to scarlet letter the clinical treatment; however, the term properly designates both the travis perkins shares, clinical treatment and the theory which underlies it. The aim of the method may be stated simply in social general terms–to re-establish a harmonious relationship between the three elements which constitute the mind by excavating and resolving unconscious repressed conflicts. The actual method of treatment pioneered by Freud grew out of Breuer’s earlier discovery, mentioned above, that when a hysterical patient was encouraged to talk freely about the earliest occurrences of her symptoms and fantasies, the symptoms began to abate, and were eliminated entirely when she was induced to travis perkins remember the the humanistic, initial trauma which occasioned them. Turning away from travis perkins shares his early attempts to explore the teaching, unconscious through hypnosis, Freud further developed this talking cure, acting on the assumption that the repressed conflicts were buried in the deepest recesses of the unconscious mind. Accordingly, he got his patients to relax in a position in which they were deprived of strong sensory stimulation, and even keen awareness of the presence of the analyst (hence the famous use of the couch, with the analyst virtually silent and out of sight), and then encouraged them to speak freely and uninhibitedly, preferably without forethought, in the belief that he could thereby discern the unconscious forces lying behind what was said. This is the method of free-association, the rationale for which is travis shares similar to that involved in the analysis of dreams—in both cases the super-ego is to some degree disarmed, its efficiency as a screening mechanism is moderated, and material is allowed to filter through to the conscious ego which would otherwise be completely repressed. Scarlet? The process is necessarily a difficult and protracted one, and travis perkins, it is therefore one of the primary tasks of the mike rose, analyst to help the patient recognize, and overcome, his own natural resistances, which may exhibit themselves as hostility towards the analyst. However, Freud always took the occurrence of perkins shares, resistance as a sign that he was on the right track in his assessment of the underlying unconscious causes of the patient’s condition. The patient’s dreams are of particular interest, for reasons which we have already partly seen.
Taking it that the super-ego functioned less effectively in sleep, as in teaching free association, Freud made a distinction between the manifest content of a dream (what the dream appeared to travis perkins shares be about on the surface) and its latent content (the unconscious, repressed desires or wishes which are its real object). The correct interpretation of the patient’s dreams, slips of tongue, free-associations, and responses to carefully selected questions leads the 9/11 essays, analyst to a point where he can locate the unconscious repressions producing the neurotic symptoms, invariably in terms of the patient’s passage through the shares, sexual developmental process, the manner in the humanistic perspective of personality: which the conflicts implicit in this process were handled, and the libidinal content of the patient’s family relationships. To effect a cure, the analyst must facilitate the patient himself to become conscious of unresolved conflicts buried in travis the deep recesses of the unconscious mind, and to confront and engage with them directly. In this sense, then, the perspective of personality:, object of psychoanalytic treatment may be said to be a form of self-understanding–once this is acquired it is perkins shares largely up to the patient, in consultation with the analyst, to determine how he shall handle this newly-acquired understanding of the unconscious forces which motivate him. One possibility, mentioned above, is the channeling of sexual energy into the achievement of social, artistic or scientific goals–this is sublimation, which Freud saw as the motivating force behind most great cultural achievements. Another possibility would be the conscious, rational control of formerly repressed drives–this is suppression.
Yet another would be the decision that it is the teaching, super-ego and the social constraints which inform it that are at fault, in perkins which case the patient may decide in the end to satisfy the instinctual drives. But in all cases the cure is scarlet effected essentially by a kind of catharsis or purgation–a release of the travis shares, pent-up psychic energy, the punca stres, constriction of which was the basic cause of the neurotic illness. It should be evident from the foregoing why psychoanalysis in general, and Freud in particular, have exerted such a strong influence upon the popular imagination in the Western World, and why both the perkins shares, theory and practice of to be rose, psychoanalysis should remain the object of a great deal of controversy. In fact, the controversy which exists in relation to Freud is more heated and multi-faceted than that relating to virtually any other post-1850 thinker (a possible exception being Darwin), with criticisms ranging from the contention that Freud’s theory was generated by perkins logical confusions arising out of his alleged long-standing addiction to cocaine (see Thornton, E.M. Freud and scarlet, Cocaine: The Freudian Fallacy ) to the view that he made an important, but grim, empirical discovery, which he knowingly suppressed in favour of the theory of the unconscious, knowing that the latter would be more socially acceptable (see Masson, J. The Assault on Truth ). It should be emphasized here that Freud’s genius is not (generally) in shares doubt, but the precise nature of his achievement is still the source of much debate. The supporters and followers of punca stres, Freud (and Jung and Adler) are noted for the zeal and enthusiasm with which they espouse the doctrines of the shares, master, to the point where many of the detractors of the scarlet letter, movement see it as a kind of secular religion, requiring as it does an initiation process in which the aspiring psychoanalyst must himself first be analyzed. In this way, it is often alleged, the unquestioning acceptance of a set of ideological principles becomes a necessary precondition for travis perkins shares, acceptance into the movement–as with most religious groupings. In reply, the exponents and scarlet letter, supporters of psychoanalysis frequently analyze the motivations of their critics in terms of the very theory which those critics reject. And so the debate goes on. Here we will confine ourselves to: (a) the evaluation of Freud’s claim that his theory is a scientific one, (b) the question of the theory’s coherence, (c) the dispute concerning what, if anything, Freud really discovered, and (d) the question of the efficacy of psychoanalysis as a treatment for neurotic illnesses.
This is a crucially important issue since Freud saw himself first and foremost as a pioneering scientist, and repeatedly asserted that the significance of psychoanalysis is that it is a new science , incorporating a new scientific method of shares, dealing with the mind and with mental illness. There can, moreover, be no doubt but that this has been the chief attraction of the the humanistic perspective, theory for most of its advocates since then–on the face of it, it has the appearance of being not just a scientific theory but an enormously strong one, with the capacity to accommodate, and explain, every possible form of human behavior. However, it is precisely this latter which, for many commentators, undermines its claim to scientific status. On the question of what makes a theory a genuinely scientific one, Karl Popper’s criterion of demarcation, as it is called, has now gained very general acceptance: namely, that every genuine scientific theory must be testable, and travis, therefore falsifiable , at least in principle. In other words, if a theory is incompatible with possible observations, it is scientific; conversely, a theory which is compatible with all possible observations is unscientific (see Popper, K. The Logic of Scientific Discovery ). Thus the scarlet letter summary, principle of the conservation of energy (physical, not psychic), which influenced Freud so greatly, is a scientific one because it is falsifiable–the discovery of a physical system in which the total amount of physical energy was not constant would conclusively show it to travis be false. It is argued that nothing of the kind is the humanistic possible with respect to Freud’s theory–it is not falsifiable. If the question is perkins asked: What does this theory imply which, if false, would show the whole theory to be false?, the answer is teaching role Nothing because the theory is compatible with every possible state of affairs. Hence it is concluded that the theory is not scientific, and while this does not, as some critics claim, rob it of all value, it certainly diminishes its intellectual status as projected by its strongest advocates, including Freud himself. A related (but perhaps more serious) point is that the travis perkins, coherence of the theory is, at the very least, questionable.
What is attractive about the theory, even to 9/11 essays the layman, is perkins shares that it seems to offer us long sought-after and much needed causal explanations for conditions which have been a source of punca stres, a great deal of human misery. The thesis that neuroses are caused by unconscious conflicts buried deep in the unconscious mind in the form of repressed libidinal energy would appear to offer us, at last, an insight in travis the causal mechanism underlying these abnormal psychological conditions as they are expressed in human behavior, and further show us how they are related to the psychology of the ‘normal’ person. The Humanistic Perspective? However, even this is perkins questionable, and is a matter of much dispute. In general, when it is said that an scarlet summary, event X causes another event Y to happen, both X and travis perkins shares, Y are, and must be, independently identifiable . It is true that this is conditioning not always a simple process, as in science causes are sometimes unobservable (sub-atomic particles, radio and electromagnetic waves, molecular structures, and so forth), but in these latter cases there are clear ‘correspondence rules’ connecting the unobservable causes with observable phenomena. The difficulty with Freud’s theory is that it offers us entities (for example repressed unconscious conflicts), which are said to be the unobservable causes of certain forms of behavior But there are no correspondence rules for these alleged causes–they cannot be identified except by reference to the behavior which they are said to cause (that is, the analyst does not demonstratively assert: This is the unconscious cause, and that is its behavioral effect; rather he asserts: This is the behavior, therefore its unconscious cause must exist), and this does raise serious doubts as to whether Freud’s theory offers us genuine causal explanations at all.
At a less theoretical, but no less critical level, it has been alleged that Freud did make a genuine discovery which he was initially prepared to reveal to the world. However, the response he encountered was so ferociously hostile that he masked his findings and travis shares, offered his theory of the unconscious in its place (see Masson, J. The Assault on Truth ). What he discovered, it has been suggested, was the extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse, particularly of young girls (the vast majority of hysterics are women), even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. Of Personality:? He did in fact offer an travis perkins, early seduction theory of social conditioning, neuroses, which met with fierce animosity, and travis perkins, which he quickly withdrew and replaced with the assistant role, theory of the unconscious. As one contemporary Freudian commentator explains it, Freud’s change of mind on this issue came about as follows: Questions concerning the traumas suffered by travis his patients seemed to reveal [to Freud] that Viennese girls were extraordinarily often seduced in very early childhood by older male relatives. Doubt about the actual occurrence of these seductions was soon replaced by certainty that it was descriptions about teaching childhood fantasy that were being offered. (MacIntyre). In this way, it is suggested, the theory of the Oedipus complex was generated.
This statement begs a number of questions, not least, what does the travis perkins, expression ‘extraordinarily often’ mean in this context? By what standard is this being judged? The answer can only be: By the standard of assistant, what we generally believe–or would like to believe–to be the case. Travis Perkins? But the contention of some of Freud’s critics here is that his patients were not recalling childhood fantasie s, but traumatic events from their childhood which were all too real . Of Personality:? Freud, according to them, had stumbled upon and knowingly suppressed the fact that the level of child sexual abuse in travis society is letter much higher than is generally believed or acknowledged. If this contention is true–and it must at least be contemplated seriously–then this is undoubtedly the most serious criticism that Freud and his followers have to face.
Further, this particular point has taken on an added and even more controversial significance in recent years, with the willingness of some contemporary Freudians to combine the theory of repression with an acceptance of the travis perkins, wide-spread social prevalence of child sexual abuse. The result has been that in the United States and Britain in particular, many thousands of people have emerged from analysis with ‘recovered memories’ of alleged childhood sexual abuse by their parents; memories which, it is suggested, were hitherto repressed. On this basis, parents have been accused and letter, repudiated, and whole families have been divided or destroyed. Unsurprisingly, this in turn has given rise to a systematic backlash in which organizations of accused parents, seeing themselves as the true victims of what they term ‘False Memory Syndrome’, have denounced all such memory-claims as falsidical – the direct product of a belief in what they see as the myth of repression. (see Pendergast, M. Victims of travis perkins, Memory ). In this way, the concept of repression, which Freud himself termed the foundation stone upon which the structure of rose, psychoanalysis rests, has come in for more widespread critical scrutiny than ever before. Here, the fact that, unlike some of perkins shares, his contemporary followers, Freud did not himself ever countenance the conditioning, extension of the concept of repression to cover actual child sexual abuse, and the fact that we are not necessarily forced to choose between the views that all recovered memories are either veridical or falsidical are, perhaps understandably, frequently lost sight of in the extreme heat generated by this debate.
d. The Efficacy of Psychoanalytic Therapy. It does not follow that, if Freud’s theory is perkins shares unscientific, or even false, it cannot provide us with a basis for the beneficial treatment of neurotic illness because the relationship between a theory’s truth or falsity and its utility-value is far from being an isomorphic one. (The theory upon which the use of leeches to bleed patients in eighteenth century medicine was based was quite spurious, but patients did sometimes actually benefit from the treatment!). I Just Want Average? And of course even a true theory might be badly applied, leading to negative consequences. One of the problems here is that it is difficult to shares specify what counts as a cure for a neurotic illness as distinct, say, from a mere alleviation of the symptoms. In general, however, the efficiency of a given method of treatment is usually clinically measured by means of a control group–the proportion of patients suffering from a given disorder who are cured by treatment X is measured by comparison with those cured by teaching role other treatments, or by no treatment at travis all. Such clinical tests as have been conducted indicate that the proportion of patients who have benefited from scarlet summary psychoanalytic treatment does not diverge significantly from the proportion who recover spontaneously or as a result of other forms of intervention in the control groups used.
So, the travis perkins shares, question of the therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains an open and controversial one.
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Hansen on shares, GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an punca stres, electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about travis storytelling in the job search at i just want to be average rose, A Storied Career. Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and shares A Foot in perspective the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at perkins, firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr.
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career one resume This articles provides a collection of sample resume objectives. Career objective is the most important part of resume which describe your motive for job. Perkins Shares! This statement helps employer to determine whether your goal is in line with their organization and the position available. Take your time to create a powerful opening for resume. Your Objective should be two or three lines long at assistant role most. Choose the travis perkins objectives which describe your skills best.
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To be involved in work where I can utilize skill and creatively involved with system That effectively contributes to the growth of travis perkins shares, organization. To pursue a highly rewarding career, seeking for a job in challenging and healthy work environment where I can utilize my skills and knowledge efficiently for organizational growth. To be an astute learner and social, the best performer in your organization. So that I can build an travis perkins shares innovative career in your esteemed organization by using my skills and summary, other significant talents. To succeed in an environment of growth and excellence and perkins shares, earn a job Which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals.
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To obtain a position of responsibilities that utilizes my skills and experience and keen to work in an environment where I can enrich my knowledge. To succeed in summary, an environment of growth and excellence and shares, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To strive for excellence, to work in such an environment that will enhance my knowledge and career, where I can perform my management skills according to punca stres, my strong Caliber and efficiency. To enhance my working capacities, professional skills, business Efficiencies and to serve my organization in best possible way with sheer determination and commitment. To live honest and hard life to work in a highly challenging competitive environment for the enhancement of my creative abilities and optimum profitability of the organization. To work hard with full dedication for the achievement of organization objective under satisfying job contact, hence enhancing my skill and travis perkins, knowledge and ready to learn new things. To serve the Organization as a hard worker in this competitive environment discharging all my professional skills.
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To succeed in an environment of the humanistic perspective, growth and excellence and travis shares, earn a job which provides me job satisfaction and self development and help me achieve personal as well as organizational goals. To succeed in conditioning, an environment of growth and excellence a job which provides me job satisfaction self development and help me to achieve personal as well as organizational goal. To seek a responsible and challenging position in the Organization where my knowledge and experience can be Shared and enriched. I would like to be a part of an organization where I could use and enhance my knowledge and talent for the development of both the organization and myself. To seek a challenging job in a reputed organization and to integrate my knowledge in your esteemed organization.
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History: World/Crazy Horse term paper 4835. When I think back of the travis stories that I have heard about i just want to be average, how the. Native American Indians were driven from their land and forced to live. on the reservations one particular event comes to my mind. That event.
is the Battle of the Little Big Horn. It is one of the few times that. the Oglala Sioux made history with them being the ones who left the. battlefield as winners. When stories are told, or when the media. dares to tamper with history, it is usually the American Indians who. are looked upon as the bad guys.
They are portrayed as savages who. spent their time raiding wagon trains and shares scalping the white settlers. just for teaching assistant fun. The media has lead us to travis perkins shares believe that the American. government was forced to take the land from these savage Indians. We. should put the blame where it belongs, on the U.S.
Government who. lied, cheated, and stole from the Oglala forcing Crazy Horse, the. great war chief, and many other leaders to surrender their nation in. order to save the the humanistic perspective of personality: lives of their people. In the nineteenth century the most dominant nation in the western.
plains was the perkins Sioux Nation. This nation was divided into seven. tribes: Oglala's, Brule', Minneconjou, Hunkpapa, No Bow, Two Kettle, and the Blackfoot. Letter! Of these tribes they had different band. The. Hunkpatila was one band of the Oglala's (Guttmacher 12). One of the. greatest war chiefs of all times came from this band.
His name was. Crazy Horse was not given this name, on his birth date in the. fall of 1841. He was born of his father, Crazy Horse an Oglala holy. man, and his mother a sister of a Brule' warrior, Spotted Tail. Travis Perkins Shares! As. the boy grew older his hair was wavy so his people gave him the. nickname of Curly (Guttmacher 23). Social Conditioning! He was to go by perkins shares Curly until the. summer of scarlet letter summary 1858, after a battle with the Arapaho's.
Curly's brave. charged against the Arapaho's led his father to travis give Curly the name. Crazy Horse. Want Average Rose! This was the name of his father and of many fathers. before him (Guttmacher 47).
In the 1850's, the country where the Sioux Nation lived, was. being invaded by the white settlers. This was upsetting for shares many of. the tribes. They did not understand the ways of the whites. When the. whites tore into the humanistic, the land with plows and hunted the sacred buffalo. just for the hides this went against the morale and religious beliefs. of the Sioux. The white government began to build forts. In 1851,
Fort Laramie was built along the North Platte river in Sioux territory. In 1851, the settlers began complaining of the Indians who would. not allow them to travis perkins shares go where they wanted. U.S. Agents drew up a treaty. that required the Indians to give safe passage to average mike the white settlers. along the Oregon Trail. In return the government promised yearly.
supplies of guns, ammunition, flour, sugar, coffee, tobacco, blankets, and bacon. These supplies were to be provided for fifty-five years. Ten thousand Sioux gathered at the fort to listen to the words of the. white government and to perkins shares be showered with gifts. In addition the. treaty wanted the Indians to allow all settlers to cross their lands. They were to divide the plains into separate territories and each. tribe was not to cross the border of to be average their territory.
The treaty also. wanted no wars to be waged on other tribes. They wanted each Indian. nation to choose a leader that would speak for the entire nation. Many Indians did not like this treaty and only after weeks of bribery.
did the whites finally convince a sizable group of leaders to sign. The Oglala's were among those who refused (Matthiessen 6). This Treaty however did not stop the trouble between the Indians. and the shares settlers. The Indians however, did not cause violent trouble,
they would perhaps approach a covered wagon to trade or extract gifts. of food. The most daring warrior might make away with a metal pot or. pan but nothing violent like the books and scarlet letter summary movies lead us to believe. The straw that broke the camels back took place on August 17, 1854 when the relations between the Indians and travis shares Whites were shattered. Among the settlers heading west was a group of Mormons and as they. were passing, a few miles south of Fort Laramie, an Indian stole a.
cow. The Mormons reported this to Lieutenant Hugh B. Fleming, the. commander of the post. Fleming demanded that the offender, High. Forehead of the Minneconjou, face charges. 9/11 Essays! Chief Conquering Bear. suggested that the Mormons come to his herd of shares ponies and pick out the.
best pony he had to replace the cow, which to the Sioux these ponies. were their wealth. This seemed to be a very gracious offer. Fleming. would not agree and sent Lieutenant John L. Grattan to bring back the.
warrior. When Grattan arrived at Conquering Bears camp, he was given. another offer. This time they could choose five ponies from five. herds among the tribes.
Grattan refused and began to open fire. (Guttmacher 14-19). Social Conditioning! This outrageous act of war was not called for. The Mormons would have surely been satisfied with the ponies or the. money the ponies would have bought. The government just did not want. to keep the Indian-White relationship peaceful.
Crazy Horse, then. called Curly, was only thirteen when the soldiers and the Indians. fought. The Indians outnumbered the soldiers and perkins shares won the assistant battle. Crazy Horse eventually became a leader of his people. Travis! In today's. society our leaders are given money and gifts but in the times of. Crazy Horse it was almost the opposite. He was expected to live. modestly, keep only what he needed and give away the rest.
After. hunting he would give the needy the choicest meat and keep the stringy. meat for himself. He did however, have the honor and prestige that. allowed him to make the punca stres decisions for the tribe (Ambrose 125). As well as other Sioux leaders, Crazy Horse lead his people into. the Powder River country. The reason for shares this move was to leave. behind the ways of the teaching assistant white man and continue living the ways of travis shares the. Sioux. The white man had brought to their country sickness, liquor.
and damaging lifestyles much different from the lifestyles of the. In 1865, U.S. Perspective! officials wanted to obtain land from the Indians. They offered many different bribes, such as gifts and liquor, to the. Indians who lived around the forts. They were very good at making the. sell of perkins land seem temporary and they convinced many that what the. right thing to scarlet letter summary do was sell. The land they wanted was access land into.
the Powder River country. Travis Perkins! The government did not have the luck they. needed in obtaining the land with money or bribes. So in the summer. of 1865 they sent more than two thousand soldiers from perspective, Fort Laramie. into the Powder River country (Ambrose 151). In 1866 the perkins shares government, knowing that the land they wanted was. worth much more, offered the Sioux fifteen thousand dollars annually. for access into Powder River country. The Indians did allow whites to. use the Bozeman Trail just as they allowed immigrants to use the Holy.
Road. Assistant! The U.S. Government had an obligation to protect its citizens. but not to provoke a crisis. Travis Perkins Shares! They did create a crisis when they. established forts in the heart of Oglala territory.
After conquering. the confederates the U.S. Army was full of optimism and wanted. desperately to have an all out war to i just to be rose exterminate the travis perkins shares Sioux. Although. the Indians were allowing the whites to use the punca stres Bozeman Trail, the. government was not satisfied. They wanted the legal right to perkins use the.
trail. E.B. Taylor, a government agent at one of the i just want rose Indian Offices, tricked some of the Indian Leaders into perkins, going to Fort Laramie in 1866. for a treaty. He deliberately attempted to deceive them; he said. nothing about building forts along the trail, only that they wanted to. use the Bozeman Trail. He offered them guns, ammunition, gifts plus. money. The Indians did not sell (Ambrose 213-214).
In June 1867, the government officials produced a new treaty. This treaty, like all the average rose ones before, only promised lavish gifts to. those who would sign. Shares! One of the Oglala chiefs, Red Cloud, wanted. more for his nation than the simple gifts offered. He wanted the. troops to move from the forts; Reno, Philkearny and C.F. Smith. During the summer of 1868 his request was accepted. The troops moved.
A civil war hero William Tecumseh Sherman moved into the territory as. the new commander of the plains. He had plans to get the punca stres treaty. signed. His hopes were to, shut up the congressional critics, get the. Sioux to agree on a treaty and maintain the army's morale. After. negotiations were made Red Cloud lead one hundred-and twenty-five.
leaders of the Sioux nations to sign the treaty of 1868. This treaty. guaranteed absolute and undisturbed use of the Great Sioux. Reservation. No person shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle. upon, or reside in territory described in this article, or without. consent of the travis Indians pass through the same? (Matthiessen 7-8). This. treaty also stated that the teaching hunting rights on the land between the. Black Hills and the Big Horn Mountains as long as the grass shall.
grow and the water flows?.(Guttmacher 73). It forced the Indians to. be farmers and live in houses. There could be no changes made to the. treaty without three fourths of all adult males of the Sioux nation. agreeing (Ambrose 282). The Indians had divided into those who agreed with the treaty, the friendly? and those who wanted nothing to do with the treaty, the. hostile?. Travis Shares! The U.S. government did not recognize these separate.
groups. Punca Stres! They forbid trade with the Powder River Indians until all. Indians moved to the reservation. This was not in the Treaty of 1868, Even though the government was getting the travis best part of the. treaty they were not satisfied with progress. In 1871 the Indian. Appropriation Bill was passed which stated hereafter no Indian nation.
or tribe within the United States shall be acknowledged or recognized. as an independent nation, tribe or power with whom the teaching U.S. may. contract by treaty? (Matthiessen 7-8). General Armstrong Custer was appointed as the new commander of. the plains. He led the Seventh Calvary on a mission to subdue a band. of hostile Cheyenne.
The calvary came across an Indian village and. attacked them instead. Black Kettle, the perkins chief of the village and his. wife were killed as they rode to surrender. This killing of 100. Cheyenne, mostly women and role children, and travis perkins 800 ponies was advertised as. Custer's victory against the brutal savages (Guttmacher 81-82). The U.S. Army led an expedition into the Sioux territory. According to the Treaty of 1868 this expedition was not legal.
The. expedition was to 9/11 essays survey land for the Northern Pacific Railroad. Shares! The. railroad meant progress. Letter Summary! (Guttmacher 81). Since the civil war the American economy was booming. Railroad. stocks led the way. On, September 18 1873, banking crashed. Farm. prices plummeted, grasshopper plaques ruined crops, yellow fever.
struck in perkins the Mississippi Valley, and unemployment went sky high. The. government figured that it's role was to pour money into the economy. The gold supply was insufficient. President Grants solution to the. economy was to open new territory for exploration.
So in the spring. of 1874 troops were sent to open a fort in the Black Hills. Punca Stres! The. government, exaggerated at the best or lied at travis perkins the worst, said the. Indians were not keeping up their part of the treaty. Teaching Role! Custer was in. charge of this expedition. During this expedition Custer claimed that. there was gold in travis perkins the Black Hills. Grant looked at this as an. opportunity to i just want mike rose show the country he could pull them from the depression.
and he opened the Black Hills for prospecting. This broke the treaty. of 1868 again (Ambrose 343-346). The Black Hills was a sacred place. to the shares Sioux. It was a place where spirits dwelled, a holy place.
called Pa Sapa by the Sioux. The whites had only the crudest concept. of what the hills meant to the Indians. By 1876 ten thousand whites. lived in Custer City, the frontier town of the southern Black Hills. Agency Indians were not living very well on the reservations. Government agents were corrupt. They would accept diseased cattle, rotten flour and wormy corn.
They would get a kickback on the. profits. The Indians were undernourished and even starving. The. agents also claimed the Indians exaggerated in 9/11 essays their numbers just to. receive more rations.
However, in a census conducted by the. government trying to prove this, they found that the Indians were. actually claiming less (Ambrose 359). In 1876, the agencies were taken from the churches and travis perkins shares given to. the army to control. This was petitioned to Washington with. statements that soldiers were obnoxious and the humanistic their dislike for travis perkins shares Indians.
was very obvious. Also the army was corrupting the Indians by. introducing and encouraging alcohol and gambling. The petition also. stated that all the agency troubles had been caused directly or. indirectly by the soldiers. No change in policy was done on behalf of.
these petitions (Kadlecek 33). Unwilling to pay for the Black Hills and i just rose unable to defeat the. Sioux in war, on August, 15, 1876 Congress passed the Sioux. Appropriation Bill. This bill stated that further provisions would. not be given to the Sioux until the hostiles gave up the Black Hills, Powder River country and Bighorn country.
They would also have to. move to the Missouri River in Central Dakota or to Oklahoma. Travis Perkins! Upset. because of conditioning there defeat the Government demanded unconditional. surrender of the Sioux or they would starve those in the agencies. Red Cloud and the other chiefs were told to sign a treaty or their. people would starve. Crazy horse and Sitting Bull continued to fight. for land that was stolen from them in a misleading treaty (Ambrose. 417-418).
The Treaty of 1876 was not signed by at travis shares least three fourths. of the scarlet letter summary male members of the Sioux nation as the Treaty of 1868 had. stipulated. So they cheated by calling the treaty an Agreement?. instead of a treaty (Friswold 19). The government had changed or disturbed nearly every part of the.
Indians lives. They had taken their horses (their wealth), taken. their land, taken the buffalo and taken their tipis. They still had. their religion. They had seven ceremonial rites of which two were the. most beneficial; the Vision Quest and the Sun Dance. The Vision quest. was an individual dance and perkins shares the Sun Dance a community affair. In June.
1877 the biggest Sun Dance seen on the reservation, twenty thousand. strong, was held to honor Crazy Horse. This was the the humanistic perspective of personality: last big Sun. Dance (Kadlecek 37-42). Crazy Horse was finally persuaded to bring his people in to shares live. on the reservation.
Crazy horse was lied to when a government. official told him that he was needed at i just to be rose a conference. He realized. this was a trap when he saw bars on the windows. He drew his knife.
and attempted to break loose. A white soldier, William Gentiles, lunged at Crazy Horse with a fixed bayonet that punctured his kidney. Crazy Horse died September, 5 1877 (Kadlecek 53). The Sioux Indians had lost nearly everything that made them a. strong nation. Travis Perkins Shares! In 1881 the assistant role government prohibited all reservations. from allowing the Sun Dance. The government went against the First. Amendment and travis perkins shares took away the Sioux's greatest religious ceremony. General Sherman, never known as an Indian lover, said a reservation.
was a parcel of land inhabited by Indians and surrounded by thieves?. (Matthiessen 17). This type of harassment did not stop. In 1887 the. General Allotment Act (the Dawes Act) was passed. This Act was.
designed to assist the Indians to mainstream into America. Each male. Indian was given 160 acres of land from the punca stres reservation. Of course. the excess land was taken by the government and sold to the whites. The Indians were not accustom to dealing with thieves and the majority.
of them lost their land through shady dealings (Matthiessen 17). The U.S. Government used many deceptions to obtain the land the. Indians once owned. The Sioux Indians were not treated with the most. respect to say the least.
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