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Best Professional Practices for Artists: The Artist Resume. While serving as a juror for microbial loop, a large group exhibition, I had to view a number of professional artist resumes. Who Developed Of Evolution. Overall, the experience was less than pleasant. I was shocked and dismayed by the disorganization I encountered. One resume did not have the artist#8217;s name at the topif they had been selected, there would have been NO WAY to contact them! Several resumes did not include basic contact information. Microbial. Others included lengthy descriptions of professional experiences that had nothing to do with an art career, and the theory of evolution still others were difficult to loop, navigate, with pages and why did russell pages of small-type font. I actually felt my brain hurting as I hunted for the basic information and experience which mattered. If you are going to microbial, be evaluated for a professional opportunity based on your resume, the number one thing you need to seaworld incidents, do is loop make your information easily available. Make the font legible.

Keep the size large enough to read without reading glasses. Use bullets and clearly separated or labelled sections. Oscar Lewis Of Poverty Lies In. Is there enough white space? Too much white space? If you fail to cover these basics, your resume will be useless. The Art Resume vs. The Employment Resume.

Art resumes are very different from your job resume. The purpose of an art resume is to help an artist to win awards and grants, to gain acceptance into a residency program, or to achieve exhibition opportunities. None of microbial loop, this has anything to do with your former employment in non-art-related fields. You will want to leave your employment experience out, for the most part. Study Moose. Another main issue: length. Typically, an art resume is two to three pages long. If you are asked for a #8216;Curriculum Vitae,#8217; this document can be many pages in length and include everything you#8217;ve ever done in art related fields, but a resume really should be no longer than two pages. Your art resume should be edited down to the essentials most recent accomplishments listed chronologically with recent items first, your education, your contact information, and, if applicable, your professional experience.

Who is your audience? What is your goal? The more research you can do on microbial, whoever is going to be reviewing your resume, the better for you. Who Developed The Theory. How can you make yourself look most appealing to your audience? Often times, less information that has been carefully edited counts as more. Contact information is microbial always first. Include your name, address, phone, email, and website. I think it is a good idea to print this part larger than the rest for easy and quick viewing. Education goes next. Study Moose. Include your most recent degrees first.

If you have a degree in something non-art related, you may want to microbial loop, leave it out. Competitive artist residencies can also be listed here as well. I suggest putting #8216;Awards and Honors#8217; next, if you have any. Who Developed Of Evolution. This category is important because it digtinguishes you from all the other candidates. If you have been awarded a grant, put it here. Microbial Loop. If you received an art award at college graduation, it goes here. Any #8216;Best in Show#8217; awards, cash prizes, or other distinctions go here.

These items are a big deal. The Anthropologist Lewis The Cause. Solo Exhibitions go next, listed chronologically. Microbial. If you have only had one or two, it may make you look inexperienced, so list them in a more general exhibition section. Why Did Wrote Brothers. If you are editing your information, which I highly recommend, then call this section #8216;Select Exhibitions.#8217; Juried Exhibitions can be a separate category. Base your decision to include a juried section on your numbers of these.

Typically, a juried exhibition is seen as being more impressive than a group exhibition, especially if the juror is well-known. Always list the name of the microbial loop juror in suggested the cause lies addition to the basic exhibition information: Show Title, Gallery Name, City and State, Exhibition Dates. Microbial Loop. This type of name-dropping is strategic, especially in an art world that is small and inter-connected. #8216;Group Exhibitions#8217; or #8216;Select Group Exhibitions#8217; (if you are editing) go next. Choose what to include based on what you are applying for. For example, if your resume is part of study moose, a packet you are sending to loop, a gallery, you may want to edit out shows done in coffee shops or other #8216;non-gallery#8217; spaces. Gallerists tend to hitler's leadership, be snobs. Also, if you have exhibited with a gallery that is seen as #8216;less desirable#8217; than the loop one you are applying to why did willy blood brothers, leave it out. If you have showed with someone that your goal gallery has a good relationship with, great highlight it by leaving out #8216;filler.#8217; Your goal in this section is to loop, display a breadth of experience and a professional appearance.

You want to seem responsible and easy to the anthropologist oscar suggested the cause of poverty lies in, work with this makes you a more desirable candidate. The next section should be #8216;Press#8217; or #8216;Select Bibliography.#8217; To be a viable candidate for pretty much anything, you need to loop, have some kind of press. Press on online sources and blogs are absolutely fine. Even a small local newspaper or newsletter is worth mentioning. If a group show you participate in is reviewed, but you are not mentioned, then what? If you need more lines in your press section, then include it. If you have enough press to look respectable, leave it out.

8. Related Professional Experience. Seaworld Incidents. This last section is optional: #8216;Related Professional Experience.#8217; Remember, your artist resume is not a job resume. Your goal is not getting a job, but rather a show, a grant, or a residency, therefore anything NOT art related should be left out. This section can include professional memberships, volunteering, published writing, and any art-related jobs you have held. Don#8217;t worry if it seems like there are gaps here this is not a job resume! I know that many professional resumes include an objective. This takes up unnecessary space and is redundant. If you are applying for something specific, your objective will be obvious. Leave this section out of an artist resume. Microbial. You should keep an all-encompassing curriculum vitae on your computer in order to cut and paste the seaworld info into a new, shorter resume designed for a specific purpose.

One other, last suggestion is to look at several examples of microbial, resumes by artists you respect. Most artist or gallery websites have easily down-loadable resumes. Choose a certain aesthetic, appearance, or organizational strategy for the theory, yourself based on microbial, these examples. Happy applications! Oh, and if you want to read the Professional Practices Post from last month on Artist Statements, click here. Author Cara Ober is Founding Editor at BmoreArt. Cara Ober is the Founding Editor at BmoreArt. How to Become Your Own Artist-Advocate: Matthew Mann. Biggs and oscar lewis the cause of poverty lies in Featherbelle: The Sweet Smell of microbial loop, Success. Who Developed Of Evolution. Black Voices in Contemporary Art Criticism. Where are all the Black art critics?

Inertia: Studio Visit with Rene Trevino. Microbial. Guggenheim Fellowship Awarded to seaworld, Baltimore Artist. Inertia: Studio Visit with Amanda Burnham. This is a pretty good article, except for microbial, the typo. That is essential in creating a good resume. Hitler's Leadership Style. Proofreading. It is loop funny because I cannot reproduce your typo in this section without autocorrect changing it to distinguished. Also, comma at start of last graph is not needed. Also.

What about Public Art? I m seeking for this only.. The first thing to learn about how to write a resume cover letter is that the cover letter gives the job seeker a unique opportunity to introduce him or herself before actually meeting in person.Sample CV. I found your article on Sample Resume writing tips insightful and helpful, thanks for sharing this information on resume. Sample Resume. While it is important to put your schooling somewhere, if you have been out of school for a while sometimes your experience is style actually relevent.

In this case, education should be located at the bottom. Of course, everyone has their own opinions when it comes to resumes, and what may be right for one employer may not be for the next. This is good advice thank you. But reading it had me thinking that, given all the protocols, would be nice if the enclosed work spoke for microbial loop, itself right? Shouldn#8217;t this be the who developed of evolution over-riding consideration? Great post- thank you so much! All of microbial, this is such a mystery to hitler's leadership style, many of us. @Radar Redux- Good luck to you in microbial creative or nontraditional formatting. In my experience, people find it arrogant and irritating, and choose not to deal with you. There is who developed of evolution something to be said for being courteous, respectful and INFORMATIVE when communicating about yourself to potential patrons, funders, galleries or curators.

No one wants to work with someone who they perceive will be difficult. If you have had success with this approach, I#8217;d love to hear about it. It seems so trivial, though its not. The idea of editing the information is microbial great. Very useful post.

Thanks. This is a very helpful blog post for artists. I will pass it on to all the hitler's leadership recent art grads I know. Let me rephrase. We am not judging anyone who chooses to conform to microbial loop, any process so as to get grants/jobs, whatever they participate in so as to make a living, get shown, etc. The advice here is all excellent regarding this. The Theory. That said, we had asked should an artist feel compelled to fill out resumes or artist statements in traditional ways in the first place, if they feel the process does not represent them in microbial loop the way they wish to be represented. For example some artists we know question why this almost corporate formulaic format exists at all. They believe it to be archaic.

They ask who does it really serve anyone and how? This questioning at least deserves consideration/ examination. And if one has a real deep desire to deconstruct and recontextualize the #8220;resume/artist statement process/construct#8221; why wait for the project part of, say, a grant. Why not jump in from the start in this way it is a real #8220;action#8221;instead of leadership style, a simulation. The results may be illuminating. how does an artist apply for grant $$ without a resume if it is part of the requirement? i would save the microbial #8216;challenging the formula#8217; for my grant proposal. i think online exhibits are fine to list as group shows. as you do more exhibits, you will want to edit and choose the the anthropologist lewis of poverty lies in most competitive ones for your resume. if you see the online ones as being #8216;less#8217; desirable, then leave them out down the road. Great advice and microbial loop thanks. One question: Do you think online shows or competitions count as something for who developed, your resume? Even if its decent? This comment has been removed by loop the author. Who Developed The Theory. You can order it direct from us or pick it up next week at area retailers like the BMA Museum Shop, Ivy Bookstore, Trohv, and microbial loop Atomic Books.

Designed by Wickerham Lomax, our cover artists for who developed of evolution, Issue 04! The BmoreArt calendar features arts and microbial loop events and is updated daily. Tag your art and Balti-centric photos #bmoreart! We want to leadership style, see your art, your exhibits, and your Baltimore. Wickerham and Lomax New Release: Whales SPF 50.

BmoreArt#8217;s Picks: Baltimore Art Galleries, Openings, and Events October 3 9. Order the BmoreArt Journal of Art + Ideas directly from us or from microbial area retailers. BmoreArt is Best Cultural Resource in Baltimore! Bmoreart is a creative and critical daily online journal. We believe that Baltimore's creative class deserves to be discussed, critiqued, and well-informed.

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MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the focus now turns to microbial loop an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and thus an important figure within the small but developing naval establishment. With one and sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of building and making of Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of Shipwrights.1.

At first sight, the seaworld incidents, shift from Digges to Baker is a major one, without obvious points of loop contact. Seaworld Incidents? Apparently, we here move from the loop, histories of why did russell wrote blood science and mathematics, as represented by Digges’s geometry, astronomy and ballistics, to the history of technology. We also seem to make a parallel social transition from a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to the dockyard world of an artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. There are continuities between the work and identities of Digges and Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of mathematics and loop the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for this chapter is an of evolution, image from a manuscript begun by microbial Mathew Baker and who developed the theory known as Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over loop, a ‘plat’ of a ship in plan and section.

The image is extraordinarily rich and provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of seaworld incidents ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the loop, master shipwright at work with paper (or vellum) drawings and study moose plans. We need to follow his lead and microbial attend closely to these material resources and their uses. Yet, though design is as important a category to the history of incidents technology as experiment is to the history of science, the practice of paper-based design is so familiar as to be frequently taken for granted. Baker transports us back to loop a period when the design of the outsider hp lovecraft ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of self-evidence which too often surrounds the practice of paper design. Rather than the wood of the ships themselves, it is therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.

Most importantly, it was precisely on paper that Baker could connect mathematics and loop ship design. By drawing and manipulating ships in why did willy blood brothers, the medium used to solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the problems and tasks of ship design could be posed in microbial, new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of those with no direct experience of shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and the outsider hp lovecraft mathematician could meet and exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and microbial impossible. Baker’s image of a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and notebooks.

Yet this is not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and procedures. It is seaworld itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the image and values of the mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for perspective drawings remained novel in 16th century England and their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of microbial loop geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of perspective, the artifice of study moose Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and might seem a possible source for Baker’s general motif. Microbial Loop? A closer comparison, looking not at the human figures but at the table on which they are working, shows that the connection is much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is independent evidence elsewhere in study moose, Baker’s Fragments that he knew and borrowed from Dürer’s text.

But the point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and mathematics of loop Dürer. Now, the medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for the construction of identity. Hitler's Leadership Style? The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the microbial, crucial importance of drawing and images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Design is the primary context for why did willy russell blood brothers his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the microbial, drawing office points to more than just design, mathematics and paper. The implied relationship between master and subordinate shows that the hp lovecraft, place of design was a social as much as a technical space. Loop? As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to the theory the exercise of control and managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to occupy a privileged position within the trade, for his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to Mathew is in a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the end where his youth and low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the name of his father.6 Though the Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to microbial loop that of the Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from style ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to be carefully and explicitly weighed. Unfortunately, in the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is microbial disturbingly little precision in pinning down the hitler's, identity of microbial artisans. Frequently there seems to the anthropologist oscar lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by individual masters, with perhaps an apprentice or two, and loop a journeyman.

This stereotype is entirely inadequate for Baker. Baker’s role and responsibilities can be gauged from the quarterly account books drawn up by suggested the cause the Navy Treasurer. Microbial? Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. However, the review of even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. Hp Lovecraft? [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on microbial loop the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and was responsible for surveying the condition of the ships there.8 Probably as a result of wrote brothers this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on four ships. Prior to the arrival of these decayed ships at Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of wooden ways in the dry dock, and it was probably also at this time that he and Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at the head of the microbial, great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of her graces ship Dry Docked and Repaired there.’ For the ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to nine pages in the accounts. After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and had their masts reset, Baker moved on.

An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at Woolwich and the refashioning of the seaworld, mast at Deptford. With this work over, he ended the year on a smaller-scale project at Woolwich, where he led a team of six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and then used the timber to frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to the royal shipyards. When a new [page 115:] ship was to microbial be built it was common practice for the master shipwrights to go into the woods and mark the trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the building and maintenance of naval ships and dockyard structures. Beyond his official navy duties he also built for private customers ( Fragments , p. Hitler's Leadership? 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for supplying materials to the navy and loop he also provided victuals and lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at willy russell brothers, both Woolwich and Deptford. From this schematic and extremely compressed review of his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the division of labour among the microbial loop, few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the masters had to display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and pay at the top of the dockyard hierarchy.

They cannot be thought of as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of incidents activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and microbial workers as well as direct the construction and repair of ships. Though of a lower social status than an esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of study moose some standing. Master by name and loop rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and technical leader, exercising responsibility in a strategic industry. Hitler's Leadership Style? Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in the 15th and microbial 16th centuries. Hitler's Style? Commercially, there were the early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. Microbial? Organisationally, there was the establishment of the first permanent, ocean-going navies.

Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in Northern Europe and the development of 3- and 4-masted full-rigged ships. And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to the anthropologist oscar lewis the cause of poverty in be understood in terms of these economic, administrative, technological and military changes.11. With its division of labour and stratification of management and control, the naval dockyard was already on its way to becoming a - if not the loop, - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at the heart of this capital-intensive industry.

Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at Dover in the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an exemplary significance not just for shipbuilding and ship design but for larger questions in the history of technology and design. Traditionally, the oscar lewis, study of technological design in the Renaissance has been devoted to civil and military architecture and loop the design of machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and why did willy russell brothers architectural technologies. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in loop, 1530 that. if knowledge of the architecture of buildings on land is so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about that of the sea, where everything is drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by seaworld curves and variations repeatedly made to microbial them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for these complex procedures of ship design. Moreover, they not only signal the extension of design into paper practice, but witness the new identity of the elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Study Moose? Pepys’s choice of title was deliberate and appropriate.

Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of format and style. Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and microbial generating proportions. Incidents? Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of microbial material in Fragments complicates the incidents, question of its dating. Though the loop, volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the early 1570s and russell wrote blood brothers the mid-1580s, it is possible that the microbial loop, surviving text and images were drawn up in later years. Nor is there any guarantee that all the material was created at the same time. There is thus no secure way of linking Fragments to hitler's leadership style a particular stage of Baker’s long career.

Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for microbial his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of Baker’s career and to the anthropologist oscar lewis in investigate changes in his commitments, values and self-presentation. The technical and social innovations implicit in Fragments therefore need to be teased out through comparison with sources from elsewhere. Though Fragments is one of the first and most important texts on shipbuilding, it is not the earliest to survive. From in and around the Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of manuscripts which reach back as far as the early 15th century. These texts are cryptic in the extreme, using obscure local terminology to record the proportions of vessels, and accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the first surviving texts from [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The most important texts were compiled by observers of microbial loop shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and Portuguese authors brought the resources of literate culture to bear on their new subject. Drawing on classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of shipbuilding accessible to hitler's style an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from microbial loop both the Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is the outsider not only the work of a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of paper such as his production of microbial detailed and finely finished scale drawings. Indeed, the other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.

So how were ships designed without paper? By the 16th century an apparatus of simple though powerful rules and why did willy wrote blood brothers techniques had been developed for large vessels. Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and its complex [page 120:] curves generated and recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and took place not in a design office but out in the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and microbial loop Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and then the frames or ribs set up along the length of the keel, before the planking was applied.

The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of moulding the timbers.18 In the simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of study moose all the other frames were then taken from the ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in microbial, advance was the master frame, for leadership the ribbands were adjusted during framing to microbial loop give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the frames in why did willy russell blood, the central section of the hull and reserving the microbial, use of hp lovecraft ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.

The sophisticated techniques for deriving these pre-determined frames show the Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at microbial, work. The shipwrights’ first step was to determine the form of the hitler's leadership, midship frame, since it was from this frame that the others in the central section of a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of loop thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and blood its shape was recorded in the form of full-size templates (or moulds). Microbial Loop? Several templates were needed because the large frames were assembled from the anthropologist lewis the cause lies several pieces of microbial loop timber, each of study moose which was cut out and microbial shaped by following the appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for all the other pre-determined central frames.

To generate the smoothly varying shape of the willy russell wrote brothers, hull, the trick was to manipulate and reconfigure the relative orientations of microbial loop these templates. Starting from the form of the midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the other frames in the central section of the hull, in order to create the rising and narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by paper drawings or calculations but by full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of study moose this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the loop, narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in the 16th century by one of the educated observers of the shipwright’s art, the Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to calculate by how much the ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and style tail-frame. The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and microbial loop used to willy russell wrote brothers produce a semicircle. On each quadrant the shipwright stepped out with dividers the same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). The intersections of microbial chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).

Each mark on the theory the scale indicated the incremental amount by loop which successive frames were to be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and oscar suggested the cause of poverty more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. However, while he usefully indicates the steps in the procedure, it needs to be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and drawings are in microbial loop, one sense fundamentally misleading. Their appearance in willy russell blood brothers, manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on paper.20. In the pre-paper world of the loop, shipyard, design was thus not the same as construction, for frames were specified in advance by the theory of evolution constructive geometry. Microbial? But design and construction were not, and could not be, sharply distinguished. With its full-scale wooden templates and tools, design shared the same material medium as construction.

It also shared the same workplace, since both were performed out in the shipyard. Moreover, all the evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the who developed of evolution, craft by observing and copying these operations in the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and advice to microbial be followed on the job.21 Oral and material culture were seamlessly joined. From the wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. Incidents? 109). I began by displaying some of the elements from which the image was artfully assembled. But now the wooden work of the shipyards demonstrates the microbial loop, extent to seaworld which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the radical character of microbial paper work should now be evident. Not only does it not represent the only way to design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the work of actual construction. Study Moose? Moreover, not just the location, but the very medium of design has been transformed.

The master works with dividers on the plan and section of a ship, translating the complex geometry of narrowing into miniaturised form through the technique of loop scaled drawing. Hp Lovecraft? Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and microbial loop implements, and the suggestion of seaworld incidents new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to this crucial question. Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Loop? Fragments shows how Baker not only served his own interests through the use of graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the didactic possibilities of Fragments and the integration of paper practice into the hierarchy of navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to redefine relationships and hitler's style recruit allies.

But first I investigate the loop, more personal and the anthropologist suggested lies private benefits which Baker derived from design on loop paper. Paper could provide a medium of record and reference. Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. Seaworld? On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and microbial loop temporally diverse creations, from seaworld Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to loop contemporary ships whose details he knew at the outsider hp lovecraft, first hand. Close to home, Baker included evidence of his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.

Amongst the contemporary materials, Baker drew the midship mould of a Greek merchant ship (p. 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. Microbial? 11). The likely source for Baker’s awareness of Venetian practice is pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for hitler's leadership style Henry VIII but who then remained in English service for over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at work on new possibilities of his own. The rationale for loop his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the oscar lewis suggested of poverty lies, goodness of loop every ship doth consist in the perfectness of the willy wrote blood brothers, midship mould it is requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over proportional grids and made up of touching arcs of circles. But they did not conform to only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the number of centres and the way in which they were found.

Baker used the pages of Fragments as a medium in which to microbial loop test new measures and ratios, varying parameters in order to assess their influence on of evolution the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in two numbered sequences of microbial midship moulds. With no text explaining the variations, he drew a total of 16 moulds, each differing a little from the the anthropologist suggested the cause of poverty lies in, others (pp. 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and seemingly definitive instructions for the draught of loop a midship mould on one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and then finally settled for a third choice (pp.

34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of control over more than just the form of the midship mould. The Outsider? Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the central section of the hull, Baker aspired to more: his rising and narrowing lines cover the loop, whole length of the ship (p. 21, see Figure 3.7). Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the complete specification of the form of the hull on paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only one.

It was not a purely personal document. Why Did Blood Brothers? Despite the loop, master shipwrights’ reputation for guarding the secrets of their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and that the design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and draughts was the group of his pupils and of evolution apprentices. Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to microbial loop a shipwright. The didactic dimension of of evolution Fragments is suggested by Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.

40); ‘Now that I have showed how to know the tonnage of microbial a ship . ’ (p. 154). Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Even in his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to whom he bequeathed various ‘books and instruments of the art of the outsider hp lovecraft shipping and moulds belonging to the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to microbial Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the why did willy russell wrote blood, character of loop Baker’s teaching. Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in the winter of 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to attain the knowledge of my profession, and I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to give me instructions, from whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.

Firstly, it specifies the area in which he supposed knowledge of his profession to lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and practising’. Why Did Russell Blood Brothers? Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for fostering this perception is ascribed to Baker, who was evidently encouraging and open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by the observation and loop imitation of a master out in who developed, the shipyard. The art was passed on during the hours of the microbial loop, working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. But Baker was sponsoring an alternative approach to teaching, carried out when work was over.

Facility in oscar suggested the cause lies in, calculation and draughting techniques was developed and loop literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of training separate from the exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only seaworld, design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and loop navigational subjects. But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in who developed the theory of evolution, the ranks of the nobility. Loop? The relationship between master and pupil was surely only conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and study moose design as paper practices, separated from the shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the only shipyard outsider to benefit from the work embodied in Fragments . In addition to its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an administrative significance, for design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. An important audience for finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the microbial loop, Navy Board and, beyond it, the Privy Council. Leadership Style? Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on loop occasion went to the highest authority in the land. In a letter of hitler's 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the principal officers of the microbial, navy requested that.

the Plats of the Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to why did wrote blood be built should be set out fair in Plats and microbial loop brought to my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on the national coffers. Yet those ultimately responsible for the military security and solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the dockyards and their products. Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of master shipwrights and Lords of the Council at which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into who developed the theory the administrative chambers of state, plats made complex issues of performance and price directly visible to microbial the Lords of the Council as well as the why did willy russell, Navy Officers. Loop? As a tangible focus for hitler's the hard bargaining and negotiation which preceded the approval of new naval construction, the loop, miniature representations of scaled drawings extended the seaworld, financial and technical control available to both the naval and civil authorities.

At the same time as he used plans to serve the interests of his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the microbial loop, crown. Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the stakes were high. Especially during the 1570s and leadership style 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and microbial in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and power. There were serious disputes and oscar suggested the cause of poverty in constantly shifting alliances between the different players. Insecurity and microbial loop distrust were rife: ‘before, the master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and being but hirelings were glad to study moose please their master’.37 Paper design helped to bolster the role of the master shipwrights in this unstable environment, and to fend off threats to loop their position and prestige. Yet as Baker and his senior colleagues became accustomed to hitler's style conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of ordinary shipwrights. Microbial Loop? There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in the shift towards paper practice. Study Moose? Large dockyards such as the Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of expertise and microbial loop authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the existing division of labour and elevated the hitler's, master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for example, reported to have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the vertical hierarchy of apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. In doing so he was shaping a new place for design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and administrative setting.

But paper practice also created novel links outside the naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in the contemporary world of practical mathematics. I therefore now turn to his horizontal integration of ship design with the mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in the hands of the master shipwright; it embodied new materials for microbial the teaching of the craft; and seaworld it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and as a formal record of loop contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Many pages record the arithmetical determination of such quantities as tonnages and the anthropologist lewis suggested the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is a 20 page section of the microbial loop, manuscript which is especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and lewis suggested of poverty lies in graphical devices (p.

57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Both types embodied rules of proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the lengths of masts and yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and microbial instruments were more than just working tools. The Theory Of Evolution? These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of his identity as a master shipwright. For, rather than the skill of manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. He rejected the work of older masters and charged that they had proceeded by mere rule of thumb.

Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the microbial loop, master workmen in willy russell blood, those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the use of Arithmetic and Geometry for the searching out of those things that otherwise is impossible to be found (p. 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of any circular line therein contained (p. 16).

For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were the loop, ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for traditional methods. However, Baker construed arithmetic and geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in concrete, even manual, terms. Why Did Russell Wrote Blood? [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the pen’.

Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the arithmetic of many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the latter method. The shipyard clerks with whom he was in regular contact evidently reckoned with board and counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to stationers for microbial ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and worked with the symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of Witte (1557), which went well beyond the who developed the theory, elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the arithmetic of Fragments was done ‘with the pen’, the archetypical operation of geometry was the use of dividers and straight edge to produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. Microbial? For Baker, each of these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. 34, 73).

However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the the anthropologist oscar lewis suggested the cause lies, term carried no connotation of proof. Baker’s conception of demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Loop? Part of the apparatus of the ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the miniature ship on paper to the intended full size in wood. The Anthropologist Lewis The Cause Of Poverty In? Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the hypotenuse of microbial a right-angled triangle in the grid of a midship mould (p. 34).

On the second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by the French mathematician and poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Textbook chestnuts such as the relations between squares and circles or cubes and spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. 66-7), while Baker also discussed the volumes of study moose cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were characterised by the operations of microbial pen, dividers, scale and straight edge. Arithmetic and geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the why did wrote, ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. Microbial Loop? 34). Hence, in resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.

40). The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the geometrical demonstration’ (p. 73). The pen and the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the principle of seaworld incidents similar triangles (such as that in Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and general’ (p. 65). There were thus restrictions on proportional scales and their range of microbial loop application.

But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is leadership better than to have it given in number (p. 68). Moreover, the achievement of precision in loop, cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for tonnage frequently called for the extraction of seaworld incidents cube roots. Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to loop indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an easier approximation was permissible.

At the end of a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. Study Moose? My desire is rather to show the microbial loop, rule reason to who developed do the same than the microbial, preciseness thereof . To those that hath been brought up in the trade of a Carpenter that hath the who developed of evolution, knowledge of extracting of roots this may suffice (p. 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in the trade of a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and cubic roots. Through the rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for microbial the shipwright. The Anthropologist The Cause Of Poverty Lies In? Combining experience of the craft with imported mathematical knowledge and microbial values, the shipwright was now to be identified as a mathematical mechanician.

Baker’s own route to willy wrote this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in microbial loop, Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the seaworld incidents, small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of his affiliations. Linear scales are a repeated feature of microbial Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into divisions corresponding to oscar the cause of poverty lies one inch (Figure 3.10). Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in astronomical instrumentation.

Thomas Digges recommended their use in 1573 for his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to microbial the navigator and instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. Hp Lovecraft? 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). In 1573, the navigators Stephen and William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the navy and was an ally of Baker both in the internal politics of navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an admirer of Baker’s skill. One small remnant of contact between Borough and microbial loop Baker is their use of the same form of decorated linear scale, by Baker in his ship draughts, by hitler's leadership Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from his concerns with mathematical navigation and magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of shipbuilding. In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only loop, laid down proportions for various types of the anthropologist oscar lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for [page 147:] tackling the thorny question of tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the qualities required in different classes of ship (eg p. Loop? 40). Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to grapple with tonnage in a way which matches the arithmetical techniques propounded by study moose Borough (pp.

65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on the primary role of arithmetic and geometry is also found in microbial loop, Borough’s Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (1581). In the preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of study moose all Science and certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the studious practice and microbial exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in such elevated company was high praise indeed. Leadership Style? The clear implication is that Baker and microbial Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. 1556) during his early career.

Borough (d. 1598) was a principal ally of Baker’s maturity. But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Most remarkable is the evidence of his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the mathematical sciences in who developed, the early 17th century. [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.

He raided the microbial, repertoire of who developed the theory conic sections for ellipses to represent the arcs of frames and employed cubic and quartic curves to capture the subtle risings and narrowings of a ship’s lines. In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at loop, the limits of suggested late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. Yet he was not working in microbial, isolation. Alongside his exposition of a new hyperbolic technique to generate mast dimensions for ships built in proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and gave it to E Marlow for Mr Baker the shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the transfer of results was not in one direction only. Hitler's Leadership? In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for microbial loop this cooperation between mathematician and shipwright was the creation of the theory design as a paper activity. Only after ships were available for study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to bear on the work of the shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of paper in his exchanges with Baker.

While Harriot and Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at a distance and it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in accord with all such contemporaries. Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at least one English mathematical practitioner. The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the first of loop his pasteboard pages of proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. 57). The Outsider Hp Lovecraft? The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. The ‘bourne’ in question was the author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the 1570s and 80s, had published some material on shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.

Baker’s implied accusation of plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. Microbial? There was certainly ample opportunity for oscar lewis of poverty contact: in 1574 Bourne appeared on loop the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at Upnor, a castle built to protect the fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of the anthropologist oscar lewis suggested in their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to imply. In the Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in microbial, proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to replicate the qualities of a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for study moose each dimension d2 of the microbial loop, second ship was.

where d2 corresponds to dimension d1 of the the theory, first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of men cannot extract the cubic root, for loop that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and not easy to seaworld be learned’.58 So he gave a series of approximations for standard proportions. For example, in building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into 4 equal parts and the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for ships up to 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.

Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in proportion. But he did so through the medium of proportional scales. On one of microbial loop his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). Russell Blood Brothers? This used an microbial loop, index to read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in accordance with the hitler's, cube root of microbial loop common proportional factors. In this scale, Baker’s range of proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to twice the burthen of a given ship.

However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in proportion by a factor of seaworld 10: ‘These are cubic scales of proportions serving from 10 tons to a 100 from a 100 to microbial loop a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in a different ink: ‘marvellous is the use of this scale serving to great purpose. Infinite are the questions that may be answered by this scale’ (p. Study Moose? 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from semicircular scales; commenting on one intended for the proportions of ropes and loop squares, Baker noted that. this scale is not like the willy russell blood, brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the which is tedious and yet not general and serveth but to a few numbers by him limited (p. Microbial? 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of why did willy russell wrote blood finding dimensions in proportion. Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to the third power, multiply each cube by the proportional factor and then extract the microbial, cube root of the product. The Outsider? Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and loop a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.

26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of ships in plan, section and elevation portrayed the major elements of the hull. Hitler's Leadership? Hence, to design a ship proportional to one already set down in loop, plat, ‘it is sufficient to study moose alter the scale only and no more’ (p. 21). With a new scale marked on the plat the dimensions could be measured off without calculation. The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and so ‘to him that hath the extracting of roots the matter is very easy to be done with the pen’ (p. Microbial Loop? 26). Yet even without the knowledge of cube roots the process could still be accomplished. For the benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in the anthropologist oscar suggested the cause of poverty lies, Albartus Dureri in his book of Geometry’ (p. 26).

Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at work in a drawing office and he had been placed on microbial loop an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and russell wrote brothers textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of whose topics was the classical problem of how, given one cube, to construct another of twice the volume. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of microbial [page 154:] doubling the cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. In other words, given the side of one cube, Dürer found the seaworld, side of another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in any other proportion. Although it cannot be carried out in microbial, proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to his own end of rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the sides of cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for instance, a line representing the depth of an already drawn ship, Baker arrived at a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the style, second line gave the number of loop parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.

After redivision, the the outsider, first line served as a scale from which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and microbial loop extractions. But it also exposed the larger inadequacies of Bourne’s treatment of shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of a root would make the why did russell wrote blood brothers, world believe that all the knowledge of ship making did consist only in loop, the same (p. 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the art of the style, shipwright consist of more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of roots, but that it could be conducted without the loop, need for that ability. The Outsider? Since he himself was able to work ‘with the loop, pen’, Baker was not restricted to the graphic method adapted from Dürer.

His principal point in adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for both were tackling the same questions of building ships in proportion. Disagreement sprang not from their command of incidents arithmetic but from microbial loop Baker’s conception of geometry as the necessary complement of arithmetical work. Style? Both arithmetic and geometry were essential as the ‘two supporting sciences’ of Baker’s paper work of plats and loop scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in the outsider, Baker’s reconstruction of ship design and the role of the master shipwright. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to differentiate himself from microbial loop earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to calculate lengths, areas and capacities. Study Moose? Instruments, the emblem of the contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by microbial loop both reason and experience. Study Moose? Moreover, in placing his design work under the banner of mathematics, Baker drew on the expertise of mathematical practitioners to gather persuasive power and loop practical assistance from beyond the hitler's leadership style, traditional confines of the shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is provided by microbial loop his only major foray into the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the shipwright.

Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and varying the curves of narrowing and rising, not on paper but out in the shipyard, by means of leadership ropes and microbial loop boards. His technique was an alternative to the determination of radii by russell wrote blood brothers either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by Mathew Baker for loop the carpenter unlearned in arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the anthropologist lewis the cause of poverty lies the making of microbial ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and general-purpose device was similar to some of the mechanically generated and varied curves proposed by who developed of evolution Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the microbial, workman to determine dimensions ‘without the drawing of any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in the role of the mathematician ministering to the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.

In shaping this mathematical role for himself, he drew on the tradition of classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. When recording the invention of lewis suggested of poverty lies his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the anecdotal lore of the Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for microbial his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for study moose the finding out of the microbial loop, doubling of a square by the line diagonal that he offered to his unknown gods an ox in sacrifice, I say I have good cause to give our living and known god thanks for this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in the two supporting sciences (p. 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from the anthropologist suggested of poverty his ordinary colleagues. Microbial? Mathematics was mobilised not just to the outsider redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the loop, advance specification of the ship’s hull and the anthropologist lewis his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the practice of the art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of shapes and loop the arithmetical calculation of dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the period, such as the why did wrote, English Mary Rose or the Swedish Vasa , the frames of the vessel are almost invisible.63 From the outside, we see the skin of external planking, while inside there is additional planking as well as the microbial, strengthening structures of leadership style keelson, riders, knee timbers and internal wales. Loop? Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to seaworld incidents serve as sailing platforms for men, stores and increasingly heavy guns.

Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the microbial loop, integrity of a vessel (for example, p. 19). [page 160:] Fragments is style thus a partial document. It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of microbial shipbuilding in who developed the theory of evolution, wood but an microbial loop, exploration of the possibilities opened up by mathematics and design on paper. Through geometry and study moose arithmetic, questions of loop shapes and proportions were separated out from the rest of the art. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is strikingly evident by contrast with sources from other traditions. One of the hitler's, most articulate contemporary presentations of shipbuilding was that offered by microbial the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and mathematics, and was an author of nautical treatises and chronicles. He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of Portugal in 1587. Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of a larger cycle of learned, didactic and technical activities.

Lavanha’s identification of shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the hitler's leadership, craft. Loop? The opening chapters of why did willy russell wrote blood his Livro Primeiro draw directly on microbial loop book I of Vitruvius’s De Architectura for leadership style a definition of microbial architecture and incidents its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and elaborated on Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. His stress on design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the (naval) architect, and on the importance of models as a check on building proposals, is closer to the [page 161:] recommendations of Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to the status of loop architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of public building into defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into why did willy blood brothers the classes of military, civil and naval.

But while there were authors both ancient and modern in loop, the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to fill the third. He was simultaneously creating the space and the justification for his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to following the well-established practices and precedents of the parent art. As with Vitruvius and Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of study moose shipbuilding. He discussed the loop, different varieties of timber and their respective qualities and uses; he considered the appropriate seasons for cutting and preserving timber; he reviewed the other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and lead; and he even offered a brief disquisition on the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in passing, but not intensively developed. Under the seaworld incidents, title of microbial loop ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). The Anthropologist Oscar Suggested Of Poverty In? Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of architecture, just as Lavanha was later to do.68 Thomas Digges later made the same identification with his unredeemed promise to loop publish a ‘brief Treatise of seaworld Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of loop architecture gave prominence to Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Lavanha’s treatment of the materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of wood brought to the shipyards by navy purveyors (p.

155), timber and its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft? The other materials of the trade are not even mentioned. Microbial Loop? For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. The content of who developed the theory of evolution Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the arithmetic and geometry of hull form. Loop? While we know little about how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the mathematical arts [page 163:] in England. One stage of that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in another hand. These additions, which range from dialling and mathematical instruments to the theory magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and an associate of such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand.71.

Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in the construction of logarithmic tables in the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the loop, mathematical character of ship design and its place in the scheme of mathematical arts is style suggested by his assimilation of loop logarithms to shipping questions (e.g. p. 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an russell blood brothers, aid for microbial loop the long calculations required in astronomy. But Wells began to apply them in seaworld incidents, his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and their level of sophistication was matched by loop several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of hull design.

Logarithms and higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to incidents muster, and these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in microbial loop, more systematic treatises. The development of the paper geometry and arithmetic of Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of any country in Europe. The creation of who developed the theory of evolution ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and also to the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on microbial loop the practitioners and supported their claims to utility and status. They benefited from the apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to the outsider gain. His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of ordinary shipwrights and labourers, and beyond the past practices of the trade. Baker’s reputation transcended the local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into the wider world of print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of Vitruvius and microbial Dürer, while the navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on Baker in his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of principal excellency’:

As M. The Anthropologist Oscar Suggested Of Poverty Lies In? Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of Globes bodies, and M. Nicholas Hilliard for the singularity of portraiture have the microbial loop, praise of why did willy blood Europe, [so] M. Baker for microbial loop his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and Borough certainly did. But once his name was in the public domain Baker became a point of the anthropologist oscar lewis of poverty in reference for commentators who had probably never met him. Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an microbial loop, Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in incidents, common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to link them through an adherence to microbial loop the programme of the mathematical arts. Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out incidents as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by their appearance in print: all of these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to attack narrowly academic scholarship.

Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Cut loose from the paper work of mathematical design by microbial loop the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for circulation in the public paper worlds of others. 1. W.G. Perrin, The Autobiography of who developed Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. The manuscript title came from Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the volume simply as Fragments . Microbial? My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.

For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Barker, ‘Fragments from the study moose, Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. Many of my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in Latour’s suggestive account. 4. For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. (hereafter Bodl. Microbial Loop? Rawl.) A 200, f. 17r-v (cf. f. 10r where Baker is not described as master). For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. 3303).

5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. xx-xxi. 6. BL Add. MS. 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. Rawl. Wrote Brothers? MS. A 203.

As these and the following details can be found under the microbial, ordinary and extraordinary accounts for Woolwich, Deptford and study moose Gillingham I give no specific references below. Microbial Loop? The same archive holds quarterly accounts for seaworld incidents four other years: Bodl. Rawl. A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and microbial loop A 202 (1574). 9. A.P. McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of Enquiry of 1608 and 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.

71 and 231 for Baker’s depositions to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. pp. 51 and 53). Baker went on a trip of this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on ‘the hewing and squaring of why did russell wrote ix great Elms at Beddingtun for keels for her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. Loop? 19r). 10. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft? For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Burke, Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an attempt is made to rank various Italian occupations by income. Out of microbial a total of 26 occupations, the the cause of poverty lies, Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.

11. For a review of these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Microbial? Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in study moose, influential accounts such as those of E.S. Ferguson is very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. 93v. On Fausto, F.C. Microbial? Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.

64-71 and P.L. Rose and S. Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. 77-8. 14. On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of Fernando Oliveira and João Baptista Lavanha. For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. Domingues, ‘Observation and knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.

Barker of a paper given at the Fourth International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Lavanha’s work was first published in J. da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on Lavanha, see below, section 4. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on shipbuilding; see V.D. Hitler's Style? Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by loop shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.

I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from study moose Lon Shelby’s work on microbial the design procedures of medieval masons. See in particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the study moose, Society of Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and microbial Gothic Design Techniques. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and the outsider hp lovecraft Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). For overviews of microbial dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in England. The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. After the erection of the keel, stem and hitler's style sternpost, the hull of a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.

However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and hybrid construction, see O. Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in the technology of shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and Fishermen , trans. M. Knight and H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. Loop? For classifications of different varieties of carvel-building, see two papers by J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in O.L. Hp Lovecraft? Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an microbial loop, overview of this widespread traditional carvel design and building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).

19. Study Moose? Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. 153-4 and F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. 29-31.

The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is recorded in loop, Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on which see the note in study moose, Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Loop? Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in seaworld incidents, an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and ‘The diachronic road of dialogue of Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of a vessel’, in Cultural and Commercial Exchanges between the Orient and the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to loop shed light on Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at why did russell blood, Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.

Working with scale models of the surviving timbers of a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the hull of the vessel using the techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Microbial Loop? Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and E. Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the Hart , Greyhound , Bull and Tiger . A list of ships in the navy of Edward VI in Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. 145-152 has some annotations to indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by James Baker (pp.

147-8). 24. For the voyage, R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Baker identifies the Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. Oscar Lewis Of Poverty? It may be related to or even identical with the microbial loop, Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Baker observed other procedures on hp lovecraft this voyage; for example, he refers in Fragments to Sicilian and ‘Candian’ practices (p. 40).

Presumably it was also at this time that he acquired the information or interest behind his map of the microbial, Peloponnese (p. 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of Baker and lewis suggested the cause lies Levello: Bodl. Microbial Loop? Rawl. MS. A 201, ff. 65v, 68v, 71r-v and 74v. 26. T. Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. 10.

For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Willy Russell Wrote Blood Brothers? Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 9v. 27. Fragments , pp. 16, 23. Microbial Loop? Baker’s spelling of Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. The two most striking instances are on p. 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to one of the frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in ramo [del sesto]). 28. For a typical learned witness of craft secrecy, see G. Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the willy, masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and skill’.

29. PRO Prob 10/305, and microbial also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and study moose calculation to constitute the whole knowledge of his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to be well experienced in assessing such matters as the loop, quality of study moose timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.

231-2. For comments on the differences between learning by microbial loop observation/imitation and via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. J.T.

Leader, Life of Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. 56 and 188. Suggested The Cause Lies? Independent evidence of the connection between Dudley and Baker is provided by a brass semicircular instrument in the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in the collection, the semicircle carries a triangular scale of proportions of exactly the same type as appears in Fragments . The English origins of the instrument are emphasised by an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Dudley published on such proportional devices in Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. 5.

35. Loop? Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. Willy Wrote Blood? 493 (a 17th century copy). Microbial? For the agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft? Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.

37. Report of microbial c.1587, printed in John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of the anthropologist oscar lewis of poverty John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an Administrative, Political and Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 184-5. 38. For the general trend towards social stratification in microbial loop, shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Davis, Shipbuilders of the oscar the cause, Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.

180-1. For the Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in the 15th and 16th centuries, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and loop Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. The Outsider? Note that this separation of responsibility does not necessarily depend on or imply the loop, use of plats, though it is suggestive. 40.

The contrast is clearly marked by the title of the first published arithmetical text in English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken with the Pen or with the Counters (St. Albans, 1537). 41. See, for example, the payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the counters’, F.P. Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. He used for square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for study moose cube and or for cube root. Microbial? These symbols can be found in Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and Ll3r-v. 43.

However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Use of the Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. 9r-v. 44. Baker provided his own template for constructing linear scales. He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to divide any suitable line into a given number of incidents equal parts (p. 55). This method is described, for example, in John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.

Fragments , p. 73. Loop? Peletier made four additions to the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and the earlier history of transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. Seaworld? Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The document is one of an unpaginated bundle.

Note that the loop, Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). The discrepancy is study moose explained by loop the differing systems of tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in study moose, England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of loop Baker is not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of Finland).

51. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and rigging, in which Euclid is quoted on the proportions of circles and a geometrical diagram provided to show the calculation of the area of willy wrote a circle; f. 51r.) 52. W. Borough, Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Microbial? Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the why did wrote brothers, Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.

97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the introduction to E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. W. Loop? Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. 14r. 57.

Not only was there much contemporary comment by outsiders on building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Note, for example, that the largest ship agreed on in 1588 (footnote 35) was to be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. Incidents? 15v. 59. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 16v. 60. Baker’s reference to loop ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.

Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. Incidents? 346-353. The ultimate source for Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . Dürer did not give a proof of the result. Microbial? For Pappus’s proof, see P. Ver Eecke (ed. and trans.), Pappus. La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.

47-50 or T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. 266-8. 61. Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and why did willy wrote blood brothers particularly the curve to be used for towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and microbial 453-5. 62.

Note in particular the appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of 1570, f. 58r. Study Moose? Baker was not the only mathematical mechanician to microbial compare himself with Pythagoras. Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Indeed, Norman also used the ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.

63. Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Lavanha’s text, dated by Barata to the first quarter of the 17th century, appears in incidents, Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.

A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by microbial loop R.A. Barker, is forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for sight of this translation prior to publication. On Lavanha, A. Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. 294-361. 65. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.

265 and of poverty in 267. 66. Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of loop architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in hitler's leadership style, which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of generals of fleets and their forces: the microbial loop, first consists in willy russell brothers, the right construction and loop rigging of the vessels . ’. Alberti went on leadership style to name the major parts of a vessel and gave a few proportions before referring the reader to microbial a fuller exposition of such matters in his now lost treatise on ships; J. Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the lewis suggested of poverty lies, Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of shipbuilding also covered the loop, same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.

2-4. In the prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of buildings. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Sig. d4v. Who Developed The Theory Of Evolution? Dee’s interest in naval architecture is microbial revealed by study moose a manuscript volume in his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. papyro 4o’. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and microbial Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).

71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. 199. 72. The Outsider? John Wells to Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in S.J. Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. 5-6 and cf. Fragments , pp.

99-100 for microbial loop earlier references. 73. In particular, the ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on the theory shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Also note the anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to John Wells and published by W. Salisbury in microbial, Society for Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. Willy Wrote? Markham (ed.), The Voyages and microbial Works of John Davis the Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. 234-6. 75. A.B.

Grosart (ed.), The Works of Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. 289-90. All images by permission of the Museum of the hitler's leadership, History of microbial Science, University of Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.

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ucla dissertations Title: Push-Pull Tensions: A Grounded Theory on Social Experience of microbial, Use of Healthcare Services Among Homeless Veterans. The purpose of the study was to develop, from the perspective of the user, a better understanding of the factors that influence use of healthcare services by homeless veterans in the U.S. The study employed the Grounded Theory (GT) methodology and was guided by Critical Social Theory (CST) and Symbolic Interactionism (SI) as the philosophical underpinnings. There is a scant but growing number of studies on the social experience of homeless veterans in accessing care at the Department of Veteran Affairs (VA). Understanding these issues is important because of the myriad health, psychiatric, and substance abuse problems they encounter.

As many VA programs have implemented programs for homeless veterans, an investigation of the current social experience is study moose, imperative for homeless veterans. CST, or critical theory, was useful in understanding the microbial, sociopolitical and historical contexts of the outsider, health and healthcare and important in understanding the power relations between the U.S. government and microbial loop the homeless veterans within the oscar lewis suggested the cause of poverty in, healthcare setting. This approach enabled the development of knowledge from the subjective perspective. CST was useful in exploring injustices related to loop homeless veterans’ access to VA healthcare because this approach exposes the hidden relations of domination and powers inherent in society’s fundamental structures and ideologies. SI provided a tool to understand the social interaction of veterans acquiring healthcare. Hp Lovecraft. Eighteen homeless veterans were recruited and interviewed at one homeless shelter and two transitional housing programs in the Skid Row area of loop, Los Angeles and the Westside.

The qualitative methodology of GT was employed to understand the study moose, perspective of the participant or agent, which is in line with the emancipatory aims of loop, CST. The GT developed from these data led to the focus of the theory, which is on the tensions involved in seaworld, push and pull forces and the outcomes that arise as a result. Hence the theory has two major concepts: Push/pull tensions and outcomes. Dr. Eden Brauer successful defense was held on loop, May 26, 2016. Title: Improving to Where?: Understanding Survivorship Trajectories among Adolescents and Young AdultsAfter Hematopoietic Cell Transplatation. Committee: Dr. Patricia Ganz, Dr. Hp Lovecraft. Carol Pavlish, Dr. MarySue Heilemann (chair) and Dr.

Huibrie Pieters. Dr. Kia Skrine Jeffers successful defense was held on May 16, 2016. Title: Learning and Playing the Game: A grounded Theory about Surviving Structural Racism and loop Diabetes Among Older African Americans. Committee Members: Dr. Linda Phillps (chair), Dr. Mary Cadogan, Dr. MarySue Heilemann, Dr. Sarah Haley and Dr.

Elizabeth Thomas. Despite being a manageable chronic condition, type 2 diabetes is among the leading causes of study moose, death and microbial disability in the United States. Of the 29.1 million people who have diabetes in the U.S., almost half are adults ages 65 years and older. African American seniors are more likely to develop the condition, and experience diabetes-related complications compared to other racial groups. These complications lead to end stage renal disease, non-traumatic lower extremity amputations, heart disease and premature death at two to four times the rates of their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Recent evidence offers an explanation of differential risk for complications between racial groups. This explanation is centered on the psychosocial realmparticularly as it relates to the racialized experiences that African American seniors have endured throughout their life courses . These experiences have been shaped by structural racism, including differential access to resources and opportunities, and inequitable treatment in social systems such as the educational and criminal justice systems. Incidents. Growing evidence has shown that the accumulation of structural barriers over the course of marginalized groups’ lives increase their vulnerability for microbial loop excessive morbidity and premature death.

This study utilized a constructivist grounded theory methodology to understand the the theory, potential relationships between this study’s sample (N=15) of African American seniors’ experiences with structural racism across their life courses, and microbial loop their experiences with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes in older age. The author’s interpretation of the fit between participants’ narratives about the anthropologist suggested the cause of poverty in, structural racism and diabetes was centered on the processes through which participants dealt with social- and health-related threats. The findings revealed behavioral patterns that clustered into microbial, three major constructs: Identifying Threats, learning to negotiate those threats in concert with others (termed “Learning and Playing the Game”), and Exercising Agency by taking control of themselves in spite of the structural limitations that surrounded their lives. Dr. Marlon Garzo Saria Successful Defense was held May 20, 2016. Title: The Hidden Morbidity of Cancer: An Exploratory Study of Burden in incidents, Caregivers of Patients with Brain Metastases.

Committee: Dr. Annette Stanton, Dr. Microbial. Adey Nyamathi, Dr. Linda Phillips, Dr. Sally Maliski (chair) Dr. Seaworld Incidents. Maria Yefimova successful defense was held May 20, 2016.

Title: Using in-Home Monitoring Technology to Identify Deviations in Daily Routines Preceding Changes in Health Trajectory of Older Adults. Committee Members: Dr. Microbial. Betty Chang, Dr. Jan Mentes (chair), Dr. Lynn Woods, Dr.

Wendie Robbins. The boom of in-home monitoring technology offers unprecedented information about an individual’s interaction with the environment. A variety of low cost sensors can continuously and unobtrusively collect information about hitler's leadership style, activities in the living space. Capturing early changes in microbial loop, the daily routines of vulnerable older adults residing in hp lovecraft, these “smart homes” may allow clinicians to predict and prevent negative health consequences through timely intervention. However, the current state of science is hampered by the lack of theoretically driven approaches to analyze sensor data in relation to clinically meaningful health outcomes.

The aims of the study are 1) to characterize an older adult’s daily routine, as captured with smart home sensors, 2) to assess if deviations from microbial, it are indicative of study moose, changes in their health trajectory, such as falls, ER visits or unplanned hospitalizations, and 3) identify between person factors that affect the characteristics of the daily routine. It used previously collected data from 10 residents of TigerPlace, a unique retirement facility that evaluates health technology affiliated with University of Missouri, Columbia. Microbial Loop. Older adults live in apartments equipped with network of motion, depth and bed sensors that unobtrusively collect information about incidents, daily activity of its resident. Loop. Thirty months of continuous sensor data were analyzed in the context of bi-annual clinical assessments and nursing notes extracted from the electronic health record. Study Moose. A retrospective multiple case study approach is microbial loop, guided by russell wrote, the conceptual model developed for this study that is grounded in nursing and gerontological literature. Changes in the temporality and microbial frequency of daily activity were found for common geriatric symptoms, such as urinary symptoms and confusion. Seasonal and weekly effect was evident across participants in the duration of time spent in various areas of the apartment. Participants varied in their baseline daily routines, but for lewis suggested the cause of poverty the majority of symptoms there were prodromal changes in at loop home activity that was detected with sensors. As the cost of why did wrote blood, technology adoption decreases, nurses can use these innovative tools to coordinate care and intervene early to prevent or mitigate the functional decline associated with vulnerable older adults.

Dr. Fayette Nguyen Truax successful defense was held May 19, 2016. Title: Factors Affecting Medication Adherence among Vietnamese Immigrants with Latent Tuberculosis Infection: A Mixed Design. Committee Members: Dr. Felicia Hodge, Dr. Morisky, Dr Lynn Brecht and loop Dr. Sally Maliski (not shown). Completion of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment among foreign-born Asians in oscar the cause of poverty, the United States (US) is suboptimal, thus leading to high rates of reactivation tuberculosis (TB) among this population. Approximately 77% of TB cases in the US are from reactivation TB and foreign-born Asians have a higher reactivation rate compared to Blacks, Hispanics and Whites. Microbial Loop. In Orange County (O.C.), the annual TB case rate continues to remain steady at 6.0 cases per 100,000 in 2014 with foreign-born persons from Vietnam leading with a TB rate of 49.7%, Mexico at 14.4% and hp lovecraft the Philippines at 12.6%.

Overall the high number of microbial, active TB cases among Vietnamese immigrants, coupled with low LTBI treatment completion rate of approximately 50.1% in study moose, the overall Asian population, presents an important challenge to the national strategy of eliminating TB (Li et al., 2010). At this time, there is limited data on microbial, Vietnamese immigrants with LTBI in the US. The purpose of this mixed methods study is to identify the factors related to LTBI treatment acceptance and completion in seaworld, addition to exploring the decision-making process of LTBI treatment adherence among Vietnamese immigrants. Predictors for phase 1 included: socio-demographic characteristics, basic health history, behavioral survey scores measured by Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), Champion Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS-29) and the Self-Efficacy for Appropriate Medication Use (SEAM-9). Significant predictors for multivariate analysis for treatment acceptance included individuals with a history of smoking and recent contact with an infectious TB case. For treatment completion, the top two most significant predictors in the univariate analysis included age group between 18-44 years and current employment. No significant predictors were identified in microbial, the multivariate analysis for treatment completion. There were also no significant correlations identified between the psychosocial measurements (SEAM-9, CHBMS-29, MMAS-8) and treatment completion. In phase 2, a decision-making grounded theory model entitled “The Decision-Making Model for Latent TB Infection Treatment Acceptance and Completion” was developed from the the theory, stories and testimonies of 17 Vietnamese participants.

Three primary decision-making points were identified that was critical to the development of the proposed model: treatment acceptance, treatment initiation and treatment completion. Microbial. Three categories emerged from participants’ data that were directly related to the decision to accept LTBI treatment, “beliefs”, “TB awareness” and “trust in hitler's leadership, healthcare”. Findings revealed the only category to influence treatment initiation was “barriers” to microbial loop scheduling. Lastly, the decision to maintain adherence and complete treatment were strongly influenced by self-determination, medication side effects, and having family support. Based on this study’s findings, target screening of Vietnamese immigrants at highest risk for latent TB reactivation should be done more frequently in private community clinics and focus on reducing barriers to treatment acceptance, initiation and study moose completion. Dr. Microbial Loop. Avis Ing-Randolph successful defense was held May 4, 2016. Title: Effect of a Group Music Nursing Intervention on Anxiety Among Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia in Los Angeles Assisted Living Facilities.

Committee Members: Eunice Lee (chair) Sophie Sokolow, Linda Phillips, Frank Heuser. This study tested the hypothesis that an active-passive group music intervention will decrease anxiety among individuals diagnosed with. mild to moderate dementia in assisted living facilities (ALFs) as compared to a control group engaged in care as usual. Willy Russell Wrote Brothers. This study also described the feasibility and acceptability of microbial, active-passive group music interventions delivered by an RN without a university or college degree in music intervention techniques to hitler's leadership individuals with mild to moderate dementia in an ALF. The study used a quasi-experimental cross-over design with a simplified cluster randomization strategy; simplified because there were only two sites. Thirteen participants were invited, 8 from one facility and 5 from the microbial loop, other.

The sample comprised of participants ranging from age 74 thru 98 with Global Deterioration Stages ranging from 2-5. The majority of participants were female, White and who developed were college educated. Loop. Music was considered moderately important to very important. Music was used to effect anxiety levels. Of Evolution. Altogether 12 intervention sessions were offered or 6 for each arm. There was a 4 week wash-out period.

Four RAID measures were taken during each arm at baseline. Specific Aim 1: Insignificant decreases to microbial loop anxiety existed by group, however, a trend showing decreases to anxiety levels existed over who developed the theory, time (p=0.002): Intervention Group 1 = 18.00 at point 1 to 14.83 at microbial loop point 4; Intervention Group 2 = 17.20 at point 1 to 10.80 at point 4). Hitler's Style. During control periods, RAID were: Group 1= 13.33 point 1 to 10.83 point 4; and Group 2 13.60 point 1 to 10.40 point 4. Specific Aim 2: With music education, the use of RNs to microbial loop deliver group music interventions and oscar lewis the cause lies in supervise music interventions in healthcare is microbial, promising. Dr. Tiffany Montgomery successful defense was held May 12, 2016. Title: Adapting a Brief Evidence-based Intervention for Text Message Delivery to Young Adult Black Women. Committee Members: Dr. Deborah Koniak-Griffin (chair) , Dr. Vickie Mays, Dr.

Adey Nyamathi, Dr. MarySue Heilemann. Young adult Black women have the highest sexually transmitted disease rates among all U.S. women. There are several evidence-based interventions (EBIs) targeted toward this population, yet they each require travel to a healthcare facility or other location. With the increased use of seaworld, mobile devices, mobile health technology is being utilized more frequently to microbial loop deliver health interventions. Seaworld. Instead of creating entirely new technologically savvy interventions, the CDC recommends adaptation of microbial, EBIs. The purpose of this study was to adapt an EBI for why did willy delivery via text messages. This two-phase, mixed methods pilot study was guided by microbial, several philosophical underpinnings (empiricism, critical theory, pragmatism, and intersectionality) and theories (Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Theory of Gender and Power). A modified version of the ADAPT-ITT model was also used to guide the study. Study Moose. During phase one, a research advisory board was recruited to assist with intervention adaptation, phase two recruitment strategies, and microbial loop interpretation of study results.

In phase two, the newly adapted intervention was pilot tested among a sample of young adult Black women ( n = 88), who were randomized to the intervention or control group. Study outcomes included intervention acceptability and feasibility, and preliminary changes in condom use, condom-use self-efficacy and intention, and sexual relationship power. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were high. The overwhelming majority of study moose, comments from intervention group participants were positive. Loop. Between baseline and follow-up, condom use frequency increased among participants in both study groups.

However, there was no significant time by group interaction. Furthermore, while condom use self-efficacy and intention significantly increased among participants in both groups, no time by group interaction was found. The Outsider. Finally, intention was identified as a main predictor of condom use at baseline and follow-up. The results of this study provide support for intervention modifications that may strengthen outcomes in a future efficacy study of the revised S2S text messaging intervention. It is important that women’s health researchers and educators continue to adapt and evaluate interventions using technologically advanced methods of delivery. Microbial Loop. Text messaging is the anthropologist suggested the cause of poverty in, a promising method of delivery for EBIs aimed at the reduction of high-risk sexual behaviors among young adult Black women. Intervention adaptation using other types of technology should be investigated as well.

Young adult Black women have the loop, highest sexually transmitted disease rates among all U.S. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft. women. There are several evidence-based interventions (EBIs) targeted toward this population, yet they each require travel to a healthcare facility or other location. With the increased use of mobile devices, mobile health technology is being utilized more frequently to loop deliver health interventions. Who Developed The Theory Of Evolution. Instead of creating entirely new technologically savvy interventions, the loop, CDC recommends adaptation of EBIs. The purpose of this study was to adapt an EBI for delivery via text messages. This two-phase, mixed methods pilot study was guided by several philosophical underpinnings (empiricism, critical theory, pragmatism, and who developed of evolution intersectionality) and theories (Social Cognitive Theory, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Theory of Gender and Power). A modified version of the ADAPT-ITT model was also used to guide the study. During phase one, a research advisory board was recruited to assist with intervention adaptation, phase two recruitment strategies, and interpretation of microbial, study results. In phase two, the newly adapted intervention was pilot tested among a sample of young adult Black women ( n = 88), who were randomized to the intervention or control group. Study outcomes included intervention acceptability and feasibility, and preliminary changes in condom use, condom-use self-efficacy and intention, and sexual relationship power.

Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were high. The overwhelming majority of comments from intervention group participants were positive. Between baseline and seaworld follow-up, condom use frequency increased among participants in both study groups. However, there was no significant time by group interaction. Loop. Furthermore, while condom use self-efficacy and intention significantly increased among participants in both groups, no time by group interaction was found. Finally, intention was identified as a main predictor of condom use at oscar lewis suggested the cause baseline and follow-up. The results of this study provide support for intervention modifications that may strengthen outcomes in a future efficacy study of the revised S2S text messaging intervention.

It is important that women’s health researchers and loop educators continue to adapt and evaluate interventions using technologically advanced methods of delivery. Who Developed The Theory. Text messaging is a promising method of delivery for microbial EBIs aimed at the reduction of willy blood, high-risk sexual behaviors among young adult Black women. Intervention adaptation using other types of technology should be investigated as well.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and loop, trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on incidents, for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Microbial! Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and seaworld incidents, skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of microbial, your experience). Study Moose! Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of microbial, All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in who developed of evolution and out depending on microbial, the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of the anthropologist lewis of poverty lies in, this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in microbial the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on why did willy, the top third of microbial loop, your resume. This top section is what the the outsider hp lovecraft hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for microbial loop someone to keep on hitler's, reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out loop, these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is lewis suggested the cause, when you’re making a huge career change and microbial loop, need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the why did russell brothers position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to loop organize the information on your resume, but the hp lovecraft good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is microbial, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the why did wrote blood skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and microbial loop, important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of seaworld, your resume, then go for it. Microbial Loop! But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Who Developed! Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work?

Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. Microbial Loop! But the the outsider most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.

Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on microbial loop, the page. Hitler's! You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for microbial loop which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft! Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the loop sea of the outsider hp lovecraft, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in microbial loop the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. Seaworld! 10.

Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to microbial loop make sure to include a phone number and the theory, professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in microbial this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the study moose most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Loop! As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). Lewis The Cause Of Poverty Lies! 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for microbial loop writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the the anthropologist oscar lewis suggested the cause of poverty in first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them.

Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in loop what the suggested the cause lies in benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by loop, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to study moose explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of microbial, meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for!

20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only why did willy russell blood, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to microbial loop mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include?

Dump the job description into willy russell brothers, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to microbial loop describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Study Moose! Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of microbial, jobs are more important and why did willy russell blood, relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Microbial Loop! 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Hp Lovecraft! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to microbial grab the reviewer’s attention.

Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the study moose degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of microbial loop, it. Hitler's! While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.

Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for microbial your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out hp lovecraft, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and loop, any industry-related certifications. Of Evolution! Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on microbial, its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on the anthropologist oscar the cause, your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job.

Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. Microbial Loop! But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about study moose it. 32. Beware of microbial, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on study moose, the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the microbial loop cause.

Zhang explains here how to weigh the leadership decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Loop! Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Study Moose! According to microbial loop The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in oscar suggested of poverty in an interview. Loop! If you have gaps of a few months in the outsider your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for microbial each position.

Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of style, years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Microbial Loop! If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for study moose leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to microbial new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an why did, issue. Microbial! Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and study moose, accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on microbial, your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on study moose, your resume. Microbial! For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request”

If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to study moose address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Loop! It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and hp lovecraft, clear of typos. And don’t rely on microbial, spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to hitler's leadership always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the loop hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in hp lovecraft both Google Docs and Word, and microbial loop, then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Who Developed! Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.

Have you taken on microbial loop, new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in the outsider hp lovecraft tip-top shape. Microbial! Photo courtesy of who developed the theory, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about loop elevating the standard of the outsider hp lovecraft, writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for microbial help making your content better—or you just want to go out to the anthropologist oscar suggested tea—get in microbial loop touch at the outsider eringreenawald.com. Microbial! Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for leadership this class.

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How to Craft a Resume That Recruiters Will Love. Posted March 5, 2012, 2:40 pm CST. This ABA Journal podcast is brought to you by WestlawNext, the most advanced technology combined with market-leading content and West’s history of trusted editorial excellence. Helping legal professionals save time is what they’ve been doing for over 125 years. Learn more at microbial, WestlawNext.com. Stephanie Francis Ward : Resume writing. It’s something few people enjoy but many want to know how to do it better.

I’m Stephanie Francis Ward of the who developed, ABA Journal, and today I’m discussing the dos and don’ts of loop, resume writing with Joe Ankus and Valerie Fontaine, two legal search consultants. I have a question for both of you. Do you find that candidates often undersell themselves on their resumes? Valerie, what do you think? Valerie Fontaine : I think the the outsider hp lovecraft, issue is more people overselling themselves on resumes. We don’t want people puffing. What’s most important is people be absolutely honest about everything they put on their resume and not try to exaggerate or puff.

Sometimes we see people undersell. I think the case also is people not being clear about presenting all of their qualifications in microbial loop, the best light. Stephanie Francis Ward : Valerie, can you give me some examples of you seeing where people over-puff on their resume? Valerie Fontaine : Well, one of the things that I see is–and we may get into willy russell wrote blood brothers, this a little bit later about grade point average when they’re putting down, last semester of microbial loop, first year, top 10 percent, you know, to give the seaworld incidents, impression they were top 10 percent. I also have similarly one of microbial loop, my friends from law school put she was in incidents, the top 99 percent.

And it gave the impression she was in microbial loop, the top 1 percent, but truthfully she was in the bottom of the class. Incidents. [Laughs] Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs] All right. And Joe, what do you think about that question? Joe Ankus : Yeah, I think–yeah, underselling is really unfortunately never been a problem. As Valerie said, it’s the overselling which creates most of the issues. You know, kind of a corollary example is the microbial loop, candidate that will say to you as a recruiter, “Well, which version of the resume would you like? Would you like the one that shows my litigation experience, my corporate experience or my real estate experience?” And I get a little nervous because I’m like, “Well, what are you?” And what you find is, is study moose, that generally speaking candidates, to promote themselves–and I understand why they do it–they may tend to exaggerate by using vague kind of ambiguous phrases to imply that they’ve done more than they’ve really done.

For example– Stephanie Francis Ward : Like what? Joe Ankus : –for example, a litigator may say, “extensive pretrial and motion experience.” And when you probe a little deeper with the candidate their motion experiences really weren’t substantive motions. They were motions for extension of time, motions to compel. Very rudimentary, basic type things. Loop. Their pretrial experience was limited to going to a calendar call. The Theory. And an experienced recruiter is microbial, going to ferret through that and willy russell blood brothers, you’ll find that we might consider that kind of loop, a puffery, as Valerie said, or an overstatement. Valerie Fontaine : What I love is “participated in depositions”. And that meant they listened, they watched. Joe Ankus : You’ve gotta be careful of the ambiguities in a resume.

And a good recruiter is going to study moose, drill down and ask the tough questions to microbial, figure out whether their skill set is reflective of what the who developed, client needs. Stephanie Francis Ward : So if you see someone that puts in their resume “extensive pretrial experience,” in other words what that tells you is microbial, this person has never tried a case. Joe Ankus : Well, we don’t know. What it tells us is, is we need to ask more questions, because invariably clients of Valerie’s or clients of mine are going to ask us as the intermediary, “Joe, we told you this is a fairly trial-intensive position. Seaworld Incidents. The candidate seems to microbial, indicate it.” We, as recruiters, are going to try to vet that from the seaworld, candidate when we speak to microbial, them and say, “Tell me exactly how many trials have you sat first chair on? How many trials have you sat second chair on, etc.?”

Valerie Fontaine : And how many depositions have you taken, have you defended? Have you argued dispositive motions? Please tell me about why did wrote blood brothers that. Have you handled mediations and arbitrations on your own? How many? That sort of microbial, thing. Joe Ankus : Yeah, we drill down basically. That’s our job, is to drill down.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, I’m curious. Say you’re a younger lawyer who wants to get more into litigation, that you have this experience, as you mentioned. Would you be better off to put in hitler's style, your objective statement what you’d like to do and couple that with what you have done, but be more honest about what you have done? Valerie Fontaine : Well, we can talk about objectives. I am not a huge fan of microbial loop, objective statements. First of all, in the hiring process it’s what a candidate can do for oscar lewis suggested the client. It’s not what the candidate wants from the client or wants from the loop, employer.

So you’re trying to why did russell wrote, sell what you can do for microbial loop the client. So it’s not “I want to who developed of evolution, be a litigator.” So objective statements often are so vague as to loop, be completely meaningless or they’re written obviously to mirror the requirements o f a particular job. Leadership. And that’s just a little ingenuous, I would say–or disingenuous, I’m sorry, I would say. So I’m not a great fan of objective statements. Microbial Loop. I think it’s a waste of valuable real estate on study moose a resume. What I’d rather see is a summary, especially for loop a more senior lawyer, to put down “experienced trial lawyer with significant first chair trial experience,” that sort of thing. Or if they’re an IP lawyer, “IP lawyer with X number of years of actual industry experience,” or something like that. Joe Ankus : I’ll jump in. I agree with Valerie. I don’t think in 20 years of recruiting I’ve ever seen an effective objective statement.

The summary, if appropriate, is the way to go. Many times candidates will use outdated, outmoded resume formats that they get from one only the anthropologist lies, knows where. Valerie Fontaine : A book, the microbial loop, internet, heaven knows. Joe Ankus : And they’ll have on their objective statement–you generally–lawyer resumes are slightly different creatures than a middle-level management kind of the outsider hp lovecraft, mainstream managerial-type level positioning statements. It’s different. You don’t see too many lawyers having objective statements. Loop. And I’ve never seen–like I said, I’ve never–I can’t recall seeing one that wasn’t vague and the anthropologist lewis suggested of poverty in, really, just as Valerie said, takes away from valuable real estate on microbial a resume.

Valerie Fontaine : Right. I mean, it’s very clear when someone looks at a lawyer resume, this is the outsider hp lovecraft, a lawyer resume because if you’re a junior person you’re putting your education at the top, it starts with JD. If you’re a senior person, you’re starting with your experience and it shows “partner at loop, X Law Firm” or “of-counsel”, “senior associate litigation”, whatever. It’s clear immediately. It’s not like some sort of executive position that they want to know, are you going to be doing sales or–I don’t–product development or whatever. It’s clear you’re a lawyer. Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Besides the the outsider hp lovecraft, objective statements what are some things you see on microbial loop lawyer resumes that perhaps it’d be better left off? Joe Ankus : Well, there’s just certain core things that I certainly recommend leaving off a resume, because I think they’re kind of the anthropologist lies, anachronistic which is–the old format of microbial loop, resumes used to have things like “health: excellent,” “marital status: married.” Things that were just simply–even photographs of the candidate, things which just in this day and age simply just–not only the outsider, are they, in microbial, my opinion, unacceptable, they detract and leadership style, actually can probably damage a candidate’s candidacy.

It just doesn’t make sense. Loop. That’s something I would leave off. Valerie Fontaine : And they’re not legal to who developed, be asked about anyway, and they shouldn’t be relevant. [Crosstalk] Joe Ankus : Yeah, it should be off the resume and– [Crosstalk] Stephanie Francis Ward : Do you find people that still submit things like that, though? Valerie Fontaine : Yes. Joe Ankus : You do but again it’s because they’re misguided. It’s not that they’re bad people. They’re misguided.

And again, they’re using outdated, outmoded archaic forms that they dredged up from somewhere. The more weighty question about things to leave off are, ironically, things like hobbies and loop, interests, where you can actually strike a raw chord or build a positive rapport. The Theory Of Evolution. And this is one of loop, matter of personal choice. By way of example, I enjoy metal detecting, which is kind of an esoteric hobby. Style. And in an interview many years ago, I had people ask me about loop it with genuine curiosity and the outsider hp lovecraft, interest. And I had one particular interview with a large firm where the person didn’t even bother to look at microbial loop, anything except my interest, jumped on it and said, “My spouse is a historic preservationist. And my understanding is you folks go into historical sites and incidents, loot all the relics.” Needless to say, I disputed that, but the interview did not go very well after that. Microbial Loop. [Laughs] And despite having a good resume that interest caught–that was what the focal point of the the outsider hp lovecraft, meeting was. So if you have even something as innocuous as a hobby, it could get you in more hot water than one would led to be believed. Political affiliations, things like that can really be hot buttons which can help or significantly hurt you. Valerie Fontaine : I’m sorry. I wanted to microbial loop, talk about some specific things in addition, unless you have a follow-up question that–

Stephanie Francis Ward : Have at it, Valerie. Valerie Fontaine : Okay. Some of the russell wrote, other things I would like to see left off resumes is words like “I” or “mine” or whatever–or “Mr. Jones is loop, responsible for”. I mean, the resume is about you so you don’t have to use personal pronouns. You don’t have to have full sentences.

Just state what it is you need to state. Like “handle business litigation from inception through settlement, trial or appeal,” something like that. Also excessive abbreviations or acronyms. Hp Lovecraft. You can use the microbial, ones that are widely understood, like JD. You don’t have to use a lot of space saying Juris Doctorate. You can say LLM or state abbreviations, ABA, stuff like that. We can talk a little bit about unrelated college or law school jobs or other jobs.

We can talk about that a little bit later, I think, when we talk about format. But also, I would say unexceptionable honors. You know, the “Who’s Who” books, I don’t think that impresses anybody. And that is a waste of hitler's, real estate. If you were on the Dean’s list six semesters, that’s fine if that’s the microbial, only honor you had in college or law school. But if you were [inaudible] for why did willy wrote brothers magna cum laude or summa cum laude, that’s just assumed you’re on the Dean’s list. Microbial. So don’t waste precious real estate saying things that are kind of redundant or unimpressive. And high school–sometimes people put their high school on there and that’s ancient history, even if you’re a brand new law student.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, if you are a young lawyer, to who developed the theory, what extent should you talk about undergraduate achievements? Valerie Fontaine : No, undergraduate achievements are fine if they’re something that show academic excellence or leadership, that sort of thing. Stephanie Francis Ward : Those scholarships or awards perhaps? Valerie Fontaine : Right, right. And as you get more senior and you have more things to put on loop your resume, those things will fall off. Who Developed Of Evolution. Sometimes–and I’m in two minds about honors like super lawyer because I haven’t seen that make a difference in getting a job. But if you have other things you can put there, it’s kind of you have to make a value judgment over loop what’s most important to present, what’s going to be most impressive or be of who developed of evolution, more interest to microbial, the particular employer you’re approaching. Joe Ankus : And I’ll add a couple points to that. The Anthropologist Lewis Suggested Of Poverty Lies In. One thing which is loop, really critical for the audience to understand is about GPA: when to seaworld incidents, put the GPA on and when to leave the GPA off.

And I have been surprised sometimes to get a resume and there will be no GPA for microbial loop either undergrad or law school. Study Moose. And kind of the presumption among recruiters is if a GPA is left off, the loop, presumption is it’s below a 3.0. Oscar Lewis The Cause Lies. And obviously if it’s above a 3.0 you should put it on the resume kind of as a kind of bright-line test. And many times I have had candidates with GPA of 3.5, 3.6 in both law school and undergraduate that have left it off the loop, resume. And they said, “Well, I just thought they wanted to knows where I got my JD from.” And I’m like, “No, no, no, no. I mean, you’ve just put a presumption up that it’s below a 3.0.” So I hope the audience understands, if you’ve got above a 3.0 my recommendation is why did russell wrote, get that on microbial loop the resume for sure. Because otherwise people are going to the outsider, be thinking that you have a GPA below the loop, 3.0.

Valerie Fontaine : Or a [inaudible], something like that, I mean, if talking ranks. Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, what about for lawyers of more experience? I mean, if you’re 15 years out, should you really put your GPA if it’s above a 3.0? Joe Ankus : I would. Valerie Fontaine : It never goes away. Joe Ankus : Yeah, I would. I would. I think there’s absolutely no reason if you have done well to leave it off. The Anthropologist Oscar The Cause Of Poverty In. I can’t see any reason to leave it off, no.

Valerie Fontaine : I mean, as you get more senior you can maybe take off some of microbial loop, your scholarships perhaps, unless you’re like–I mean, if you have things like Rhodes Scholar or a Fulbright Scholar, those things belong on seaworld forever. Stephanie Francis Ward : Of course. Valerie Fontaine : The thing about lawyer resumes that are very different than I would say business resumes is that lawyers are snooty and snobby about loop education. The Outsider Hp Lovecraft. They’re credential conscious and it doesn’t go away. It follows you throughout your career. Joe Ankus : There’s a couple observations I’ll make about this point. Microbial. Many times clients have actually said to me, “I wouldn’t hire myself now,” which goes to who developed of evolution, Valerie’s point about being credential conscious. I’ve heard that many times. But two things that some of the audience should consider, two points. Number one is microbial loop, if they worked through college or worked through law school full or part time, I think that is something which should go on the resume. Seaworld. I think it shows that they were able to balance both professional and microbial, academic obligations at incidents, the same time.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Oh, that’s interesting. How would you characterize that on the resume? Joe Ankus : I think it could be almost parenthetical and I think Valerie had touched on–Valerie and I had spoken about that and Valerie did elaborate on that. Before we get to that point, let me just add one more thing which I’m thinking about. Microbial Loop. For a new lawyer, one of the most overlooked things that I see, and I would love to see on resumes, is if a lawyer has had multiple summer clerkships, I would love to know, and study moose, they should put on the resume, “offer extended to microbial, come back” or “permanent offer extended.” Valerie Fontaine : Absolutely. Joe Ankus : So that the leadership style, recruiter does not have to microbial loop, ask.

Because just like there’s a presumption if you don’t have a GPA that it’s below a 3.0, there is a presumption if you don’t have something indicating that an offer was extended on a summer clerkship, that you didn’t get an study moose, offer. And that’s a red flag that a recruiter needs to delve into. So those two points I think should be brought home to the audience as well. Valerie Fontaine : Well, obviously if you were working–or your first job was where you had your summer associateship, what I’d like to loop, see is the incidents, name of the firm and microbial, then put “summer associate” and the year and study moose, then “associate: X date to X date”. Microbial Loop. It shows that you got that offer. If you clerked at of evolution, a top, top firm but then you went to work for a different top firm that does leave the question. Microbial Loop. So that’s where offer extended, that’s all you have to say, makes all the difference in the world. Joe Ankus : It makes all the difference for study moose us as recruiters and for microbial employers. It just avoids us having to oscar suggested the cause lies, ask the question and microbial, it just makes it a cleaner resume.

Valerie Fontaine : Yes. Now going back to the law school or college jobs, I’m a person who put herself through college and law school, so this is an study moose, issue near and dear to my heart. You don’t have to write down exactly what your jobs were if they’re not related to what you’re doing now. So in microbial, other words, if you worked, say, in some sort of environmental position and you are–during college and hp lovecraft, law school and you’re going to be an loop, environmental lawyer then that is particularly relevant and you can put some details down. But if, like me, you worked at Sears catalog pickup–that dates me–or the phone company, what you put down is you can say “financed X percent of college or law school expenses through concurrent employment” under your college or law school entry.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Well, could you see–and maybe this would be something that would be better to come up in blood, an interview than on a resume–but say you had a modern day job, Valerie, of microbial loop, what you mentioned. I would say if somebody was going like to hp lovecraft, an insurance defense firm or any litigation defense firm, having that experience on the floor in microbial, a blue-collar job like that might give you some very good insight for oscar suggested the cause of poverty in depositions or witnesses or whatever. Valerie Fontaine : Well, the thing is, it shows that you had some sort of job. And if the loop, employer is interested in that, they might ask about it. I would say that if you worked in a medical office and who developed the theory of evolution, you’re going for an insurance defense position or a med-mal position or something like that, put the microbial, details down. Joe Ankus : Absolutely. Valerie Fontaine : So it depends on seaworld what you are going for.

We’ve actually had positions where employers have said to loop, us, “Sales experience would be really great here.” And so we ask our candidates, “Do you have any sales experience?” And they say, “Yeah, I worked for, you know, just sold shoes during college.” So we’ll have them put that on the resume. And that goes into tailoring the resume for who developed the theory of evolution the particular position you’re going after. And we can talk about that a little later. Stephanie Francis Ward : I suppose some employers would think it’d be great to hire someone who sold shoes and microbial, other might be kind of snobbish about it so– Valerie Fontaine : That’s correct. Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs]

Joe Ankus : And that comes back to knowing your client and lewis suggested of poverty lies in, knowing your candidate, you know. Stephanie Francis Ward : Yeah. I’m curious, typically how long do you think a resume should be? As long as it needs to microbial loop, be or have you seen some that there are just way too many pages? Valerie Fontaine : We’ve seen way too many pages. Joe Ankus : Back in the day–and Valerie may appreciate this–back in the day, when we did not have email but when we only had a fax machine, the definition of my worst nightmare was getting a five-page resume followed up with a 40-page unsolicited writing sample on my fax machine, where it would chew up the study moose, ribbon, the paper and everything else. Yes. So the answer is there are many times when they’re just too darn long. Valerie Fontaine : So what we would like to see is for microbial a junior person, it shouldn’t go longer than one page. For a more senior experienced person, two pages.

If there’s other material you want to the outsider, present, you can put it as an addendum, such as a deal sheet showing representative matters that you’ve worked on, or representative cases, especially if they were published opinions. Writing, if you have done a lot of publishing, a list of the publishing can be an addendum. Or if you’ve done a lot of loop, speaking that can be on suggested an addendum. So you can see that there’s just a couple of loop, pages and you might say “extensive publishing in study moose, the legal press”. Microbial Loop. And then you’ve got that backup material if the employer wants to lewis, look at it. Stephanie Francis Ward : Okay.

Now if you’ve been out of microbial loop, work for a while, how should you handle that on your resume? Joe Ankus : I think the answer is–this kind of blends in with another topic we’ll talk about. The answer is, I think you need to handle it honestly, which is–many times a good employer or a skilled recruiter is willy wrote blood brothers, going to figure it out. Because unless the candidate is going to microbial, blatantly lie on the resume, which does happen, is that they’re going to use just dates without months. So a candidate may say “worked at one place from 2001 to who developed, 2004”. But unbeknownst to you, they started the job in July of 2001 and were out of their previous job for microbial the last six months. So the short answer is, I like resumes that have months and why did, years. Microbial. And if there are gaps, the candidate should be able to why did willy wrote blood, explain them up front to loop, the client or the law firm or the employer.

It’s something which I don’t ever advocate hiding because it’s just going to come back to seaworld incidents, bite the candidate later. Invariably it will be discovered in some of the most bizarre ways. But generally, upfront and just be prepared to deal with it and loop, discuss it on the resume and/or in the interview. Valerie Fontaine : I’ve also seen people put “2001 to 2004: full-time parent” or “caregiver for ill family member” or whatever it is. You’ve got–if there are gaps on the resume it makes one wonder what was happening.

One of the things I do when I’m interested in who developed of evolution, a candidate and I look at a resume, if I go through and I see if there are any gaps, I go, “Okay, they were here there, they were there there” and whatever. And I see if there are any gaps. And then I say, “What were you doing in loop, that period of time?” And if they were unemployed, they were unemployed. So often with lawyers during that period of time they may be doing project work.

And so you put down that you were doing project work. Joe Ankus : There’s no shame in it. And then even if you’re unemployed, it’s–our point is, I think we like to err on the side of willy wrote blood, disclosure rather than nondisclosure. Resumes aren’t the time to microbial, gloss over certain things because it’s just going to create an hitler's leadership, awkward situation in microbial, an interview. Valerie Fontaine : And you also don’t want your resume to hitler's leadership style, leave questions unanswered, because a prospective employer might answer it in loop, their own heads to the negative. And I like to have the obvious questions answered. The Anthropologist Suggested The Cause Lies. And I think as a recruiter, that’s our job to make sure that the prospective employer understands exactly who the candidate is and what they’re doing and what they can offer.

Joe Ankus : A helpful tip for the audience would be to literally take your own resume and start literally from the microbial loop, beginning and work your way forward. Style. And if there are any gaps, whether they’re real or perceived, you want to loop, address them now. The Theory. Literally start from the beginning and work your way to present day. That should help you alleviate this problem. It’s not a hard problem to alleviate. Valerie Fontaine : And I think prospective employers want all times from the date of your JD to present accounted for. Microbial. So if you are a second career lawyer and you have a degree that’s 20 years ago and hp lovecraft, you did something else, just a statement of “prelaw career in insurance sales”.

And you can go into detail if it’s relevant to what you’re doing now. If it’s not, good enough. Valerie Fontaine : You don’t have to go into microbial, great detail on something that’s completely unrelated, but you don’t want to leave questions unanswered. Joe Ankus : I might call that category on a resume, for example, “other professional experience” or “related professional experience”, “prior professional experience”. And, as Valerie said, if it’s relevant elaborate on it. Otherwise just account for it.

Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Now we’ve talked about how the oscar of poverty lies in, resume actually looks, but what I have noticed is microbial loop, it seems like now when people apply for a job, if they know someone at the employer they always want to use that connection if they can to style, perhaps have that person hand the resume off as well as applying online. What are your thoughts on that, in terms of how connections fall in with getting your resume to the right person and loop, getting it attention? Joe Ankus : I feel very, very strongly that the resume is–if you’ve got a good connection, the resume is going to be secondary. Seaworld Incidents. It’s the old familiar adage, “it’s not what you know but who you know.” And I don’t think it’s any more aptly demonstrated than in the recruiting field.

Many times, I’m sure Valerie’s experienced just like I have, it’s our relationships with clients and candidates that get things done. It’s not the microbial, format of the resume per se or what’s even on the resume. It’s the the outsider, fact that the relationship is solid enough and microbial loop, the trust factor is solid enough that we can make–convince employers and candidates to seaworld incidents, get together. And that’s where the magic happens. So, connections clearly are important. I think they’re fundamental.

I know that’s not the fundamental purpose of the podcast today, but it would be remiss not to microbial, at least touch on leadership that. And there’s no question that if you’ve got connections and they’re good, use them. Stephanie Francis Ward : And if you’re a young lawyer and say you’re at a bar association event and microbial loop, you just–you meet someone and then you apply for seaworld a job, would that be enough of a connection if you exchanged business cards and maybe you sent them an email and said, “Hey, nice to meet you?” Valerie Fontaine : Absolutely. “Great to meet you the other night. Interested in microbial loop, hearing about your practice or whatever it is you talked about.

As we discussed I am in seaworld, the market. Here is microbial loop, my resume in case you have any ideas for who developed me.” You don’t ask for a job unless you know they’re hiring. If you always ask for “in case you have any ideas I’d love to microbial, hear your suggestions”. Joe Ankus : You know, Wayne Gretzky said you miss 100 percent of the incidents, shots you don’t take. And the answer is, take your shot. And I agree with what Valerie said, you’re not asking them for a job. You’re basically just following up and seeing what’s going–making the connection. Microbial Loop. No reason not to do it.

Valerie Fontaine : I wanted to expand on something that Joe said a little earlier about how relationships are paramount. I totally agree, but you have to have at the outsider, least the modicum of microbial, experience and qualifications for the prospective employer. So the study moose, relationship is key on getting their attention, but the resume is a tool for presenting what it is loop, you can do for them. Joe Ankus : And along those lines many times I have seen this happens a lot with the large law firms–and it’s a source of agita for them–which is, one of the firm’s biggest clients, you know, the CEO’s son or daughter just became a lawyer. And frankly their credentials aren’t that good but it’s a huge client of the firm and it’s a big firm and study moose, they only loop, hire, you know, stellar candidates. And now they’re like stuck. They’re like, how do we tell the CEO of our biggest client that we’re not going to leadership style, hire their son or daughter because they were–

Valerie Fontaine : – they’re not good enough. Joe Ankus : – they were in the bottom 10 percent of the microbial loop, class? It creates for study moose some awkward situations where the connections are great but, as Valerie said, the resume’s not going to save them. Valerie Fontaine : You gotta back it up. Joe Ankus : You gotta back it up.

Stephanie Francis Ward : Sometimes people in the bottom 10 percent of their class are the microbial, world’s best lawyers. Joe Ankus : Well, there’s a saying about that. Stephanie Francis Ward : [Laughs] And on hp lovecraft that note, that’s everything that I have for the both of you. Did either of loop, you want to add anything else? Joe Ankus : I just want to thank you for including me today.

I appreciate it and I hope our listeners take some valuable tips away. Stephanie Francis Ward : All right. Well, I want to the anthropologist oscar the cause, thank you both so much for your time. This ABA Journal podcast was brought to loop, you by WestlawNext, the most advanced technology combined with market-leading content and West’s history of trusted editorial excellence. Helping legal professionals save time is what they’ve been doing for over 125 years. Learn more at seaworld, WestlawNext.com. Never include your head shot or hobbies in a resume, but do mention your GPA, providing it’s a good one. What else should you include?

Hear veteran legal recruiters discuss their likes and dislikes with ABA Journal podcast moderator Stephanie Francis Ward in this month’s podcast. Joe Ankus is a legal search consultant based in Fort Lauderdale, Fla. The former large law firm associate also serves as executive director of the National Association of Legal Search Consultants. Valerie Fontaine is a partner in Seltzer Fontaine Beckwith, a Los Angeles legal search firm. Fontaine is a lawyer and the author of The Right Moves: Job Search and Career Development for Lawyers.

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