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The 904: Reflection Paper

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An overview of Apps for Apraxia of Speech. The 904: Reflection. Apraxia of Speech is a speech disorder that affects the motor skills associated with speech. Children with apraxia have difficulty producing sounds, syllables, and words. Several apps have been published in the last year, which can serve as a tool for the intensive motor speech drill shown to be effective in helping children learn consistent sound production. One approach that has been shown to be effective is the initial use of words with less complex syllable structures such as CV CV to words with multi-syllables.

The ASHA website has a very structured page with more information on Childhood Apraxia of mama day Speech. ( All the apps currently available in the iTunes app store reflect a structure that is in line with this approach. Last year I became very interested in developing a new app for The 904: Paper apraxia, which has pushed me to learn and research the subject more than ever.. Mama Day. I own and have used about 95% of all the Apraxia apps on Paper the apps store, and a recent discussion on Linkedin showed me that people would really benefit from learning the review, differences and similarities of each app. This blog post has a companion podcast where I demo the five apps discussed here. You can watch the GeekSLP TV #36 video here. ( Let#8217;s now take a look at what is available for you as a tool to help children practice: Apraxia Picture Sound Cards ($179.99): Designed by an expert in Apraxia of Speech, this app provides practice at the word level using 775 real photographs. This application includes words organized by The 904: Reflection Paper syllable structures such as CV, VC, CVC, CVCV as well as words by syllable numbers (one, two, three four syllable words).

This is U.S. Policy America Essay a comprehensive application, and it allows the adult to select which specific phoneme to target within the selected number of syllables . This app also allows users to pick specific words within their word pool. Reflection. After the selection of the target, a series of pictures is presented. The user can tap on U.S. Essay the app to have the written word displayed. A data tracking system is present and Reflection, it allows the data to be saved over time. Policy America. The cost of this app is on the higher end of the apps presented here.

I believe the number of features and quality of the app should be taken into consideration when pricing apps. There are cheaper apps, which I will be discussing a little further but one must pay close attention to the simplicity of the apps. Apraxia Ville : This application is what pushed me to The 904:, research and learn more about childhood apraxia of Speech. Apraxia Ville includes three activities and over 600 words. Apraxia Ville includes a few very unique features . The first one is the animation of all consonants and vowels including diphthongs. The child can also tap on the camera button to how to mate, activate the Reflection, camera on the iPad 2 or the iPad 3. In the second activity the adult can select both target phonemes and syllable structures. To date, Apraxia Ville is the only app to include vowels on their phoneme selection list. Once a set of words is selected the images are presented and the adult can monitor productions by a using a built in scoring system.

One other feature that is only available on Policy and Latin Essay Apraxia Ville is the Reflection, ability to have multiple students working on different targets at the same time. The data is tracked and stored individually. How To Mate. A voice recorder is available on this activity. The third activity is the Reflection Paper, words farm, which targets practice for combining words. The adult can choose between two or three words per screen with the ability to target specific phonemes for change each word. Apraxia Ville allows the data to be saved on Reflection the iPad over time and exported to Underclass Book, are no Children Here, the Therapy report Center. Finally, a favorite feature of many users, every phoneme on the app has a built in homework sheet which can be printed or emailed to parents.

Linguisystems Apraxia Cards : This application provides adults with sets of words organized by syllable structures; however, it does not allow for selecting specific phonemes. The app has two activities, a receptive activity called the “touch” and an expressive activity called “ say”. The expressive activity allows adults to collect and track data, record the child’s voice and includes various tips for spontaneous production of the target word. The data is tracked for each student and can be store on Reflection the iPad for monitoring progress in therapy. Foreign Policy. Speech Therapy for Apraxia : This app, created by the National Association of Child Development, provides a slightly different selection style than the previously mentioned apps. In this app, the adult is able to select groups of Paper words but not the syllable structure.

Levels are used to utilize a natural progression of difficulty for determining which words are targeted. As the national, student progresses through the levels, the number of repetitions and complexity of the The 904: Reflection, words increases slightly. The Urban Depicted Kotiowitz’s There Are No Children. Sly Apraxia : This simple app provides 125 images organized into different syllable structure categories. Sly Apraxia app includes CV, VC, CVC, CVCV Multisyllabic categories. This app also provides a simple data tracking system that requires the Paper, adult to email the data obtained at the end of use coffee each session as it does not add each player to the application. The low cost of the application is a trade off for the number of The 904: Reflection Paper features. This is review not necessarily a negative comment, but one that we all need to understand when purchasing apps. This is one simple app with few images but one that you have available if you can only spend $5 for each app. See below a comparison of The 904: Paper each one of the apps discussed here and mama day, the categorization of The 904: Reflection Paper each feature included on the apps: If you would like to see these apps in action just watch episode #26 of Underclass in Alex Book, Here GeekSLP TV ( the companion video of this post).

Disclaimer : I am the author developer of Apraxia Ville. I do not have any financial relationship with the other apps mentioned here. You must be logged in to post a comment. Using the iPad to help my son become Bilingual. Ten years ago I moved to the Unites States, I was a monolingual Portuguese speaker, and struggled a lot to. If one AAC device cannot fit all, why would one AAC app fit all?

GeekSLP “iPad 3” adventure and thoughts for speech therapy. Free GeekSLP 2.0 App is now available for iPhone, iPod touch #038; iPad. Are you disappointed with Speech Therapy? My cousin came over to spend the night at The 904: Reflection our place. She is touring colleges around Texas to attend this. GeekSLP is a place where speech-language-pathologists can learn about the latest news related to iPad apps for speech therapy.

GeekSLP is written by Barbara Fernandes, a speech-language-pathologist with over 50 apps published on the app store. Barbara has presented around the world on the topic and is one of the saw voice, most respected experts in Reflection Paper exploring apps for speech and Foreign Essay, language.

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MATHEW BAKER AND THE ART OF THE SHIPWRIGHT. From the gentleman Thomas Digges, the focus now turns to an older contemporary, Mathew Baker. Baker (c.1530-1613) was a royal master shipwright under Elizabeth, and Reflection thus an important figure within the small but developing naval establishment. With one and and Latin sometimes two senior colleagues, he was responsible for constructing or rebuilding many of the ships which tackled the Spanish Armada of 1588. In 1605, his standing at the head of the ‘Art or Mystery of building and making of Reflection, Ships’ was confirmed when he was created first Master of the newly founded Company of change, Shipwrights.1.

At first sight, the shift from Digges to Paper, Baker is a major one, without obvious points of contact. Apparently, we here move from the mama day histories of science and mathematics, as represented by The 904:, Digges’s geometry, astronomy and ballistics, to the history of technology. We also seem to make a parallel social transition from a self- [page 108:] conscious gentleman to the dockyard world of an artisan. Yet I shall suggest that these oppositions are overly stark. There are continuities between the the rose work and identities of Digges and The 904: Baker, continuities which were established through the practice of the rose, mathematics and the creation of the mathematical practitioner. The starting point and emblem for this chapter is an image from a manuscript begun by Mathew Baker and known as Fragments of Ancient English Shipwrightry (Figure 3.1).2 The picture shows a master shipwright and an assistant at work in a drawing office, the master wielding giant-sized dividers over a ‘plat’ of a ship in Paper, plan and section.

The image is extraordinarily rich and national english ks2 provides vital clues to Baker’s transformation of ship design into a mathematical art and his simultaneous self-fashioning as a mathematical practitioner. Baker shows the master shipwright at work with paper (or vellum) drawings and plans. We need to follow his lead and attend closely to these material resources and their uses. The 904: Reflection Paper? Yet, though design is as important a category to the history of technology as experiment is to the history of the rose 2006, science, the practice of paper-based design is so familiar as to be frequently taken for granted. Baker transports us back to a period when the design of ships was first being worked out on paper; his Fragments undercut the air of self-evidence which too often surrounds the The 904: practice of paper design. Rather than the wood of the the rose review 2006 ships themselves, it is therefore paper that [page 109: Figure 3.1] [page 110:] stands at the central focus of this study.3.

Most importantly, it was precisely on The 904: Paper, paper that Baker could connect mathematics and ship design. By drawing and mate manipulating ships in the medium used to solve geometrical problems and perform arithmetical calculation, he was able to juxtapose previously unrelated domains. On paper, the problems and tasks of ship design could be posed in new terms, and techniques could be transferred, explored and adapted. The 904: Reflection? Moreover, paper could circulate through and beyond the shipyard, reaching and speaking the language of Foreign Policy and Latin Essay, those with no direct experience of shipyard life. Paper was a mobile ‘place’ where shipwright and The 904: Paper mathematician could meet and The Urban in Alex There are no Children Here exchange. Indeed, without paper, Baker’s mathematics and his contacts with mathematical practitioners would have been not just difficult but incomprehensible and impossible. Baker’s image of The 904:, a design office shows all the appurtenances of a methodical and regularised practice, with its drawings, scales, dividers, set square, pens, and notebooks.

Yet this is not a transparent window onto the past, providing us with unmediated access to Baker’s workplace and procedures. It is itself a representation and was carefully constructed to communicate the image and values of the change mathematising shipwright. Take the simple perspective scheme as an example. Despite their 15th-century Italian origins, the rules for The 904: Paper perspective drawings remained novel in 16th century England and their results still carried a vivid sense of the powers of U.S. Policy and Latin America, geometry. Baker’s perspective display endorsed those geometric values, and he exercised the skill of perspective representation elsewhere in Fragments (pp. 2-3). [page 111:] However, aside from its use of perspective, the artifice of Baker’s drawing can be more radically dismantled. The 904: Paper? Figure 3.2 shows a room with two men creating a perspective image, and might seem a possible source for The Urban Underclass Depicted Book, There Baker’s general motif. A closer comparison, looking not at the human figures but at the table on which they are working, shows that the connection is much stronger: Baker’s table is a direct copy from the engraving. This exact source is the final woodcut in Albrecht Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), a heavily-illustrated treatise on practical geometry directed specifically at painters. As will become clear later, there is independent evidence elsewhere in Baker’s Fragments that he knew and borrowed from Dürer’s text.

But the point here is that Baker was deliberately and self-consciously assembling his identity as a shipwright and The 904: designer, pulling together elements from the prestigious artistry and mathematics of Dürer. Now, the medium for Thomas Digges’s self-fashioning was the word. With Baker, we have a visual as much as a verbal medium for the construction of identity. The visual contrast with Digges reinforces the crucial importance of drawing and images for an understanding of Baker’s identity. Design is the Underclass Book, are no Children primary context for his mathematical work. But Baker’s representation of the The 904: Reflection drawing office points to more than just design, mathematics and paper. The implied relationship between master and subordinate shows that the place of design was a social as much as a technical space. As a master shipwright in 1562 and then a royal master shipwright in 1572, Baker was [page 112: Figure 3.2] [page 113:] accustomed to the exercise of control and managerial responsibility.4 Indeed, he had been brought up to occupy a privileged position within the trade, for his father, James Baker, had been a master shipwright to Henry VIII.5 The first surviving reference to national ks2, Mathew is in a 1544 list of shipwrights in which, rather than appearing towards the end where his youth and low pay would have otherwise consigned him, he features at the top, directly under the name of his father.6 Though the Bakers did not create a dockyard dynasty comparable to that of the Pett family throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Mathew Baker was clearly brought up to expect leadership and a place apart from ordinary workmen.7. As an elite shipwright, Baker’s status as a craftsman needs to Paper, be carefully and use coffee mate explicitly weighed. Unfortunately, in the existing historiography of scholars and craftsmen there is disturbingly little precision in pinning down the identity of artisans. Frequently there seems to be a tacit understanding that the craft world was made up of small workshops populated by individual masters, with perhaps an apprentice or two, and a journeyman.

This stereotype is entirely inadequate for Baker. Baker’s role and responsibilities can be gauged from the quarterly account books drawn up by the Navy Treasurer. Unfortunately, these detailed accounts survive for only a few years of the Elizabethan reign. Reflection? However, the review of even a single year provides a good sense of Baker’s official status. [page 114:] By 1578 Baker was well-established as a royal master shipwright. He began the year directing routine maintenance on the fleet stationed in Gillingham Water (Chatham) and was responsible for surveying the condition of the mama day ships there.8 Probably as a result of this survey, substantial repairs were later carried out on four ships. Prior to Reflection Paper, the arrival of mama day, these decayed ships at Deptford, Baker supervised the construction and fitting of The 904: Paper, wooden ways in the dry dock, and it was probably also at this time that he and use coffee mate Peter Pett installed a new pair of floodgates at the head of the great dock there, ‘for the Speedier Receiving in and taking out of her graces ship Dry Docked and Repaired there.’ For the ship repairs themselves, Baker headed a workforce of shipwrights and caulkers at Deptford which runs to Reflection, nine pages in the accounts. After several months’ work, when his last ship was almost completed, and the others had already been relaunched and had their masts reset, Baker moved on.

An additional decayed ship arrived at Deptford for dismasting and was then taken to Woolwich to be dry-docked; Baker directed both the repair of the hull at Woolwich and the refashioning of the mast at Deptford. With this work over, he ended the year on a smaller-scale project at U.S. Foreign Policy Woolwich, where he led a team of six shipwrights who broke down an old ship and then used the timber to frame a lighter for the transport of artillery. Baker evidently had wide-ranging technical expertise and the habit of management. Moreover, he was not restricted to the royal shipyards. When a new [page 115:] ship was to be built it was common practice for the master shipwrights to go into the woods and mark the trees whose shapes and sizes were most appropriate for the projected vessel.9 Nor was Baker exclusively concerned with the building and The 904: maintenance of naval ships and dockyard structures. Beyond his official navy duties he also built for private customers ( Fragments , p. 22 refers to the Edward of a ‘Mr Willames’). Baker’s entrepreneurial activity extended in 2006, other directions too. In 1578 he was paid for supplying materials to the navy and The 904: Reflection he also provided victuals and lodgings for shipwrights prested into royal service at change both Woolwich and Deptford. From this schematic and extremely compressed review of his responsibilities, Baker’s relatively high status is clear. Although the The 904: division of labour among the few permanent and many temporary naval workers was strongly developed, the masters had to display competence in diverse fields, and they were rewarded with position and pay at the top of the dockyard hierarchy.

They cannot be thought of as ‘rude mechanicals’, humble artisans in a severely circumscribed sphere of activity.10 Rather, they were versatile figures who, with increasing seniority, were expected to manage resources and workers as well as direct the saw voice construction and Paper repair of ships. Though of a lower social status than an esquire such as Thomas Digges, Mathew Baker was thus of some standing. Master by name and rank, he was marked out from junior colleagues and occupied a level comparable with (if not identical to) [page 116:] that of a gentleman. Baker confounds the traditional category of the craftsman or artisan: he was working as a manager and national ks2 technical leader, exercising responsibility in a strategic industry. Nor was shipping a static technology. All aspects of the industry were undergoing rapid development throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. The 904: Paper? Commercially, there were the use coffee mate early voyages of discovery and the subsequent development of long-distance trade. The 904: Reflection? Organisationally, there was the establishment of the first permanent, ocean-going navies.

Technically, there were challenges such as the adoption of Mediterranean carvel construction techniques in how to use coffee, Northern Europe and the development of 3- and 4-masted full-rigged ships. Paper? And militarily, there was the introduction of heavy artillery firing from lower decks. The elevated role of the master shipwright needs to be understood in saw voice change, terms of The 904: Reflection, these economic, administrative, technological and military changes.11. With its division of labour and stratification of management and mama day control, the naval dockyard was already on its way to becoming a - if not the - major industrial site of the early modern world. Baker was at The 904: the heart of this capital-intensive industry.

Moreover, his expertise was sufficient to give him wider credibility beyond the realm of the shipyard: Baker’s service at Dover in the 1570s and ’80s precisely confirms his perceived position as a trusted agent for a range of complex tasks. Baker thus has an U.S. Policy and Latin, exemplary significance not just for shipbuilding and ship design but for larger questions in the history of technology and design. The 904: Reflection? Traditionally, the The Urban Underclass Kotiowitz’s There Here study of technological design in the Renaissance has been devoted to civil and military architecture and Paper the design of national english ks2, machines, with shipbuilding kept separate in the [page 117:] distinct domain of maritime history.12 Yet, in many respects, the rapid development of ships and maritime institutions posed larger design challenges than in those other mechanical and architectural technologies. The Venetian Vettor Fausto commented in 1530 that. if knowledge of the architecture of buildings on Paper, land is so thoroughly difficult, what should I say about that of the sea, where everything is drawn out not by straight lines (which is an almost easy method) but by curves and variations repeatedly made to them?13. Baker’s Fragments provide some of the most valuable archival evidence for mama day these complex procedures of ship design. Moreover, they not only signal the extension of The 904: Reflection, design into paper practice, but witness the new identity of the elite mechanician as mathematical practitioner. Mathew Baker’s manuscript was christened Fragments of The Urban Underclass in Alex Kotiowitz’s Book, are no Children Here, Ancient English Shipwrightry when it was acquired and preserved by Samuel Pepys. Pepys’s choice of title was deliberate and appropriate.

Fragments is not a coherent volume; its pages display an enormous variety of format and style. The 904: Reflection Paper? Some parts are finely executed, perhaps for a planned presentation volume, while other sections are no more than notebook pages. There are coloured draughts of ships with their full decoration; [page 118:] historical and mythological sketches; a map; plans, elevations and sections of ships; and practical mathematical devices for scaling and generating proportions. Interspersed amongst this profusion of different representations are various jottings, calculations and explanations - even a poem. The diversity of material in Underclass Depicted Kotiowitz’s Book, There are no Here, Fragments complicates the The 904: Reflection Paper question of its dating. Though the volume illustrates and records details of ships built by Baker between the early 1570s and the mid-1580s, it is possible that the surviving text and images were drawn up in later years. Nor is mama day there any guarantee that all the material was created at the same time. There is The 904: thus no secure way of linking Fragments to a particular stage of Baker’s long career.

Unfortunately, aside from administrative records, which do not speak with Baker’s own voice, there are no other substantial sources for his design practice. Thus, in contrast to the case of Thomas Digges, it is not possible to reconstruct the development of Baker’s career and to investigate changes in his commitments, values and review self-presentation. The technical and social innovations implicit in Fragments therefore need to be teased out through comparison with sources from elsewhere. Though Fragments is one of the Paper first and most important texts on shipbuilding, it is Foreign Policy not the earliest to survive. From in and around the Venetian Arsenal, there exists a series of manuscripts which reach back as far as the early 15th century. The 904: Paper? These texts are cryptic in how to use coffee mate, the extreme, using obscure local terminology to record the proportions of vessels, and accompanying their recipe-style instructions with rough sketches.14 Contemporary with Baker are the first surviving texts from The 904:, [page 119:] the Iberian tradition (itself closely related to Italian practices). The Urban Kotiowitz’s? The most important texts were compiled by observers of The 904:, shipbuilding rather than shipwrights and contrast markedly with the earlier Venetian documents. As educated outsiders, these Spanish and Portuguese authors brought the resources of literate culture to bear on their new subject. Drawing on classical precedents and literary forms, they produced discursive and systematic treatments of shipbuilding accessible to an audience unfamiliar with dockyard culture.15. Baker’s Fragments is distinct from both the Venetian and Iberian documents: his volume is not only the work of a practising shipwright but it incorporates innovative uses of paper such as his production of detailed and finely finished scale drawings. Indeed, the curriculum other European sources are, paradoxically, often more indicative of the design practice that preceded paper techniques.

So how were ships designed without paper? By the 16th century an apparatus of The 904: Reflection, simple though powerful rules and techniques had been developed for large vessels. Ship design was memorised in proportional rules, and its complex [page 120:] curves generated and recorded by full-size wooden moulds or templates. Technically advanced shipwrights employed a sophisticated constructive geometry which used wood rather than paper and took place not in national, a design office but out in Reflection Paper, the shipyard itself.16. In the later 16th century, English naval vessels, like earlier Mediterranean and Iberian ships, were carvel or skeleton-built; that is, the keel was laid down, the stem and sternposts erected, and then the frames or ribs set up along the length of the keel, before the planking was applied.

The shape of skeleton-built frames thus determined the form of the hull.17. However, carvel was (and is) a broad category, encompassing numerous solutions to the problem of moulding the timbers.18 In the simplest form, one or two identical master frames were placed midships and flexible battens or ribbands run [page 121:] round them from stem to sternpost. The shapes of Policy America, all the other frames were then taken from the ribbands. The only frame actually to be specified in Reflection Paper, advance was the master frame, for the ribbands were adjusted during framing to give a fair form. More advanced techniques for large vessels reduced the use coffee mate reliance on ribbands, by pre-specifying the frames in the central section of the hull and reserving the Reflection use of ribbands to the ends of the ship, where the curves become sharper.

The sophisticated techniques for mama day deriving these pre-determined frames show the Renaissance shipwrights’ constructive geometry at work. The shipwrights’ first step was to determine the form of the midship frame, since it was from this frame that the others in the central section of a ship were shaped. Proportional rules of thumb defined its dimensions and arcs, and its shape was recorded in The 904:, the form of full-size templates (or moulds). How To Use Coffee Mate? Several templates were needed because the large frames were assembled from several pieces of timber, each of which was cut out and shaped by following the appropriate template pattern. The shipwrights used the same templates for Reflection Paper all the other pre-determined central frames.

To generate the smoothly varying shape of the hull, the review trick was to manipulate and reconfigure the relative orientations of these templates. Starting from the form of the midship frame, the templates were slightly adjusted for each of the The 904: Reflection other frames in the central section of the hull, in order to how to use coffee mate, create the rising and narrowing of the ship’s lines towards bow and stern. These slight changes were controlled not by paper drawings or calculations but by full-scale graduations marked directly on the templates themselves, or on boards. The case of narrowing provides a convenient example of this full-scale [page 122:] constructive geometry. Though mentioned in Venetian sources, the narrowing procedure was most clearly spelled out in the 16th century by one of the Paper educated observers of the shipwright’s art, the Portuguese Fernando Oliveira.19. The shipwright used a proportional rule of thumb to mama day, calculate by how much the ship’s side should narrow between the midship frame and the tail-frame, the last frame fore or aft in the hull’s central section. The question of narrowing then resolved into the problem of subdividing this dimension so as to smoothly pull in the frames between midship and tail-frame. The narrowing dimension was first taken as a radius and used to The 904: Reflection Paper, produce a semicircle. On each quadrant the shipwright stepped out with dividers the national english same number of equal arcs as there were narrowing frames. Joining up the matching points gave a series of chords (Figure 3.3). Reflection? The intersections of chord and radius produced a graduated scale that would then be used to smoothly narrow the hull (Figure 3.4).

Each mark on the scale indicated the incremental amount by which successive frames were to be pulled in to narrow the hull: initially a small amount, but gradually more and review 2006 more (Figure 3.5). Oliveira’s account shows how the shipwright solved the problem of narrowing given only the overall narrowing dimension and the number of frames. The 904: Paper? However, while he usefully indicates the steps in the procedure, it needs to Book,, be emphasised that Oliveira’s text and drawings are in one sense fundamentally misleading. The 904: Reflection Paper? Their appearance in manuscript form intrudes paper into a procedure depending on wood. In practice, the narrowing was worked out mama day full-scale with string [page 123: Figure 3.3] [page 124: Figure 3.4] [page 125: Figure 3.5] [page 126:] and board rather than as a miniaturised representation on paper.20. In the pre-paper world of the shipyard, design was thus not the same as construction, for frames were specified in advance by constructive geometry. The 904: Paper? But design and construction were not, and could not be, sharply distinguished. With its full-scale wooden templates and saw voice tools, design shared the same material medium as construction.

It also shared the same workplace, since both were performed out in the shipyard. Moreover, all the evidence suggests that apprentices learnt the craft by observing and copying these operations in the workplace. Instruction was delivered informally, as directions and Reflection Paper advice to english ks2, be followed on The 904: Paper, the job.21 Oral and review material culture were seamlessly joined. From the wooden world of the shipyard, we can now return to Mathew Baker’s image of shipwrights in a drawing office (Figure 3.1; above, p. 109). I began by displaying some of the The 904: Reflection elements from the rose review, which the image was artfully assembled. But now the wooden work of the shipyards demonstrates the extent to which the very practice of design on paper itself had to be constructed. Far from being a natural or inevitable activity, the Reflection Paper radical character of how to mate, paper work should now be evident. Not only does it not represent the only way to design a ship, but it contrasts markedly with the templates and graduated boards of pre-plan practice. With Baker, we are now [page 127:] removed from the busy world of the wooden shipyard: design is Reflection Paper portrayed as inhabiting a space quite different from the the rose work of actual construction. Reflection Paper? Moreover, not just the location, but the very medium of design has been transformed.

The master works with dividers on the plan and section of a ship, translating the complex geometry of mama day, narrowing into miniaturised form through the The 904: Reflection technique of scaled drawing. Curriculum English Ks2? Baker’s image shows us design inhabiting a distinctive new space, with new materials and implements, and Reflection Paper the suggestion of new social relationships. If it is clear that ships could be built without plans and drawings, how did ‘plats’ become successful?22 Baker’s Fragments provide unrivalled access to national, this crucial question. Paper became a key feature of Baker’s practice because he made it serve a whole series of related functions. Baker’s manuscript pages became a site on which technique, control, teaching, administration and the navy could be juxtaposed and combined. Fragments shows how Baker not only served his own interests through the Reflection Paper use of graphic design and paper work, but enrolled the interests of others. By examining the The Urban Underclass Book, There are no Children didactic possibilities of Fragments and the integration of paper practice into the hierarchy of navy administration, I will indicate how ‘plats’ could help to redefine relationships and recruit allies.

But first I investigate the The 904: Reflection more personal and private benefits which Baker derived from design on paper. Paper could provide a medium of record and reference. Baker vigorously exploited this capacity. On his pages are juxtaposed geographically and temporally diverse creations, from mama day, Noah’s ark and the first fleets of the ancient world (pp. 1-3), [page 128:] to contemporary ships whose details he knew at first hand. Close to The 904: Reflection Paper, home, Baker included evidence of his own father’s ships.23 But he also ranged much more widely.

Amongst the contemporary materials, Baker drew the saw voice midship mould of a Greek merchant ship (p. 12); his knowledge of its form probably dates back to a Mediterranean voyage of 1551.24. Baker also documented Venetian midship mould procedures, providing unique evidence of historical changes in their techniques (p. 11). The likely source for Baker’s awareness of Venetian practice is pointedly suggested by the navy quarterly accounts, where Baker’s name appears directly above that of The 904: Reflection, a certain Augustino Levello.25 Levello was a Venetian shipwright who had originally been brought over to build galleys for Henry VIII but who then remained in English service for over 40 years.26 Baker learnt and adapted not just Venetian graphic techniques, but even adopted their terminology.27 In Fragments , Baker was able to compare diverse designs and techniques which would never previously have been juxtaposed. Paper also provided a medium in the rose review, which experimentation was relatively [page 129:] cheap. The 904: Paper? As well as recording the midship moulds of others’ ships, Fragments also shows Baker at work on new possibilities of his own. The rationale for his focus on these midship main frames is very explicit: ‘forasmuch as the curriculum ks2 goodness of every ship doth consist in the perfectness of the midship mould it is requisite [that] the same be perfectly made’ (p. 34). Typically, Baker’s midship moulds were drawn over Paper proportional grids and made up of mama day, touching arcs of circles. But they did not conform to only one pattern: the grid was changed, as were the number of centres and Reflection Paper the way in which they were found.

Baker used the pages of Fragments as a medium in which to test new measures and ratios, varying parameters in order to assess their influence on the form of the hull. His most systematic exploitation of the review 2006 possibilities opened up by design on paper appears in two numbered sequences of midship moulds. With no text explaining the variations, he drew a total of 16 moulds, each differing a little from the others (pp. 36-9, 42-3, 46-7). Even when he came closest to prescribing a canonical form for midship moulds his trials did not stop; despite giving explicit and seemingly definitive instructions for the draught of Paper, a midship mould on one page, the accompanying drawing actually departed slightly from them. When drawing the upper futtock (topmost section of the Underclass in Alex Kotiowitz’s Here mould) he carefully scribed the lines laid down in his text, but he did not ink them in. Instead, he scribed an alternative orientation and then finally settled for The 904: Reflection a third choice (pp.

34-5; see Figure 3.6). Baker was seeking to achieve a new level of The Urban Underclass Depicted in Alex Book, There Children, control over more than just the form of the Reflection Paper midship mould. Whereas the most sophisticated template techniques worked with only the central section of the Depicted Kotiowitz’s are no hull, Baker aspired to more: his rising and narrowing lines cover the whole length of the ship (p. 21, see Figure 3.7). Baker was [page 130: Figure 3.6] [page 131: Figure 3.7] [page 132:] attempting the complete specification of the form of the hull on paper. But Fragments did not have an audience of only one.

It was not a purely personal document. Despite the master shipwrights’ reputation for The 904: guarding the secrets of their craft, there are indications that Fragments was written for others too, and that the use coffee mate design practices that it reveals were embedded in wider relationships.28. One segment of the additional audience for Baker’s texts and draughts was the group of his pupils and The 904: apprentices. Fragments represents a new departure in the teaching considered appropriate to mama day, a shipwright. The didactic dimension of The 904: Reflection Paper, Fragments is suggested by The Urban Underclass There are no Children Here, Baker’s language: ‘in this division observe all the rules before taught’ (p.

40); ‘Now that I have showed how to know the tonnage of a ship . ’ (p. 154). Paper? Moreover, we know that he had apprentices. Even in his eighties, when he prepared his will, Baker still had two ‘servants’ to whom he bequeathed various ‘books and instruments of the art of shipping and moulds belonging to the same.’29 In 1626, Phineas Pett certified that one John May had been ‘bred as an apprentice and servant’ to Baker.30. The same Phineas Pett, himself a master shipwright to James I and Charles I, provides vital evidence of the use coffee mate character of The 904: Paper, Baker’s teaching. Mama Day? Despite much enmity between the two men in subsequent years, Pett was to recall in his autobiography that in the winter of The 904:, 1595/6, in the evenings, commonly I spent my time to good purposes, as [page 133:] in cyphering, drawing and practising to national english, attain the knowledge of my profession, and I then found Mr Baker sometime forward to The 904: Reflection, give me instructions, from whose help I must acknowledge I received my greatest lights.31. Pett’s testimony is of exceptional interest.

Firstly, it specifies the area in which he supposed knowledge of his profession to America Essay, lie: ‘cyphering, drawing and Reflection practising’. Mama Day? Cyphering - calculation using Arabic numerals - and drawing are central features of Fragments : Pett’s perception of the shipwright’s art mirrors the character of Baker’s paper work. In addition, primary responsibility for fostering this perception is ascribed to Baker, who was evidently encouraging and Reflection Paper open with his knowledge, even though Pett was never his apprentice; in an (admittedly flattering) letter to Baker of 1603, Pett remarked that ‘although I served no years in your service, yet I must ever acknowledge whatever I have of any art (if I have any) it came only from you’.32. Pett’s casual comment that Baker’s instruction was given in the evenings also suggests a deeper point. Shipwrights traditionally learnt their trade by the observation and national curriculum imitation of a master out in Reflection Paper, the shipyard. The art was passed on during the national curriculum ks2 hours of the The 904: Paper working day and the process did not demand literacy or formal numeracy. Mama Day? But Baker was sponsoring an alternative approach to teaching, carried out when work was over.

Facility in calculation and draughting techniques was developed and literacy probably assumed. Baker was promoting a form of training separate from the exercise of the craft at the workplace. So not only design, but craft teaching too, was removed from the wooden world of the shipyard and transferred to a new space like that of [page 134:] Baker’s drawing office (Figure 3.1).33. The implications of this shift in the place of design and teaching are best exemplified not by the evidence of a shipwright but by Sir Robert Dudley (1574-1649), the illegitimate son of the Earl of Leicester. Dudley spent much of his life in Italy, where he published his lavish magnum opus Dell’Arcano del Mare (1646-7), a multi-volume work which expounds and illustrates shipbuilding amongst many other nautical and navigational subjects. Reflection Paper? But Dudley’s shipbuilding interests originated before he fled England in 1605, for he was referred to in 1607 as Baker’s pupil (‘scolare’).34 That Dudley should have had a shipwright as a ‘master’ is remarkable for, though illegitimate, he had been brought up in the ranks of the nobility. The relationship between master and pupil was surely only Foreign Essay conceivable because Baker had rendered both teaching and design as paper practices, separated from the The 904: Reflection Paper shipyard where common workmen exercised their trade. Robert Dudley was not the only shipyard outsider to benefit from the work embodied in Fragments . In addition to the rose, its didactic context, Baker’s work also had an administrative significance, for design on paper was integrated into the navy’s decision-making process. An important audience for finely finished draughts such as [page 135:] those in Fragments was the Navy Board and, beyond it, the Privy Council. Indeed, shipwrights’ plats on occasion went to the highest authority in the land. In a letter of 1588, addressed to the three royal masters (Peter Pett, Richard Chapman and Baker), the principal officers of the navy requested that.

the Plats of the Ships, Galleasses and Crompsters that were lately determined to be built should be set out fair in Plats and brought to my Lord Admiral that her Majesty may see them.35. Navy expenditure was a major drain on the national coffers. Yet those ultimately responsible for the military security and solvency of the realm were unlikely to have either experience or understanding of the dockyards and The 904: Reflection their products. Baker later recalled how Lord Treasurer Burghley had opened his house to the meetings of master shipwrights and Lords of the Council at which plats were displayed and resolved upon.36 By bringing proposed ships into the administrative chambers of state, plats made complex issues of performance and price directly visible to the Lords of the Council as well as the Navy Officers. As a tangible focus for the hard bargaining and negotiation which preceded the approval of Policy and Latin America Essay, new naval construction, the miniature representations of Reflection Paper, scaled drawings extended the financial and technical control available to both the national curriculum ks2 naval and civil authorities.

At the same time as he used plans to serve the interests of his superiors, Baker was also promoting his own interests as an indispensable servant of the crown. Reflection? Nor was this a game of merely nominal status; the Foreign Policy America Essay stakes were high. Paper? Especially during the 1570s and 1580s there was almost continuous administrative upheaval and in-fighting, with a corresponding uncertainty over the exact distribution of naval [page 136:] responsibility and power. There were serious disputes and U.S. Foreign and Latin constantly shifting alliances between the different players. Insecurity and The 904: distrust were rife: ‘before, the master shipwrights did direct, but now they are to be directed; and being but hirelings were glad to please their master’.37 Paper design helped to bolster the role of the master shipwrights in saw voice change, this unstable environment, and to The 904: Reflection Paper, fend off threats to their position and mama day prestige. Yet as Baker and his senior colleagues became accustomed to conference with the Privy Council, they became correspondingly detached from the temporary workforce of ordinary shipwrights. There were probably therefore losers as well as winners in the shift towards paper practice. Large dockyards such as the Venetian Arsenal already possessed a hierarchy of expertise and authority, but Baker’s new skills consolidated the existing division of Reflection, labour and elevated the master further above the ranks of his humbler colleagues.38 The master was now a more remote figure who could direct work from a distance; Baker is, for ks2 example, reported to have ‘moulded’ a ship, which was then framed by a close colleague.39 [page 137:] Baker inserted his paper design work within the The 904: Reflection vertical hierarchy of apprentices, masters and governing authorities who practised and regulated naval shipbuilding. In doing so he was shaping a new place for design: a new physical location, a new position within the technical practices of the craft, a new set of materials, and a new social and administrative setting.

But paper practice also created novel links outside the naval establishment. In Fragments , Baker’s most important new investment was in the contemporary world of practical mathematics. I therefore now turn to his horizontal integration of ship design with the saw voice change mathematical arts. We have seen that Mathew Baker’s Fragments was a multi-purpose document. It was used as a repository for constructed ships, experimental designs and international comparisons; it consolidated technical control in the hands of the master shipwright; it embodied new materials for the teaching of the craft; and it included finely finished draughts suitable both for presentation and The 904: Paper as a formal record of contractual accountability. However, Fragments also had another use, as a site for calculation. Many pages record the arithmetical determination of Foreign and Latin America, such quantities as tonnages and the areas of specific midship moulds. But Baker’s most characteristic mathematics was graphical rather than arithmetical. There is a 20 page section of the manuscript which is Reflection especially striking, for it uses thick pasteboard rather than ordinary paper as a medium for proportional scales and graphical devices (p.

57ff.). Among these various ‘paper instruments’ were scales based on graduated series of concentric semicircles [page 138:] (Figure 3.8), as well as others depending on the principle of similar triangles (Figure 3.9). Both types embodied rules of proportions for dimensions such as moulded breadths or the lengths of masts and yards; a number still have index threads attached, while some show signs of extensive usage. Amongst its other benefits for Baker, Fragments was thus also intended as a mathematical compendium. But Baker’s paper scales and U.S. Foreign America Essay instruments were more than just working tools. These devices were vital to his self-conception: mathematics was a primary resource in Baker’s reconstruction of his identity as a master shipwright. For, rather than the The 904: Reflection Paper skill of manual craftsmanship with wood, Baker adopted a rhetoric of arithmetic and geometry. He rejected the work of older masters and the rose review 2006 charged that they had proceeded by mere rule of thumb.

Lacking mathematical knowledge, they had been unable to provide a rationale for their technical decisions. Before plots and demonstration were used the master workmen in those days had certain rules of proportion, but not such as agreed with art, for that they wanted the use of Arithmetic and Geometry for the searching out of those things that otherwise is impossible to be found (p. 28). Even contemporaries who did use plans were open to criticism. Although at this day there be many that use plots yet the best understandeth not the true making thereof, neither the truth of any circular line therein contained (p. 16).

For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were the The 904: ‘two supporting sciences’ (p. 33). Mathematics acted as the U.S. Foreign Policy and Latin primary point of reference in bolstering his self-conscious disdain for traditional methods. However, Baker construed arithmetic and The 904: geometry in highly specific ways. They were not the sciences of abstract number and magnitude; rather, they were characterised in concrete, even manual, terms. The Rose 2006? [page 139: Figure 3.8] [page 140: Figure 3.9] [page 141:] Arithmetic and its calculations were pre-eminently to be done ‘with the The 904: Paper pen’.

Baker’s pen-reckoning implicitly rejected the mama day arithmetic of many contemporaries. Calculating ‘with the The 904: Reflection pen’ (or cyphering) meant using Arabic numerals. The alternative practice was to work ‘with the counters’, requiring a counting board and casting counters, and normally recording the sums in Roman numerals.40 Baker’s preference for cyphering over casting did not stem from unfamiliarity with the mama day latter method. The shipyard clerks with whom he was in regular contact evidently reckoned with board and Reflection counters: the Navy accounts use Roman numerals to detail many payments to stationers for ‘casting compters’.41 But Baker learnt his arithmetic from books rather than the administrative practices of the shipyard. When he extracted roots and worked with the The Urban Depicted Book, There symbols of algebra he was drawing on texts such as Robert Recorde’s Whetstone of The 904: Reflection Paper, Witte (1557), which went well beyond the elementary calculations required for accounting.42. If the arithmetic of national curriculum english ks2, Fragments was done ‘with the pen’, the archetypical operation of geometry was the use of dividers and straight edge to produce midship moulds, plans and elevations. For Baker, each of The 904: Reflection, these drawings was a ‘geometrical demonstration’ (pp. 34, 73).

However, such ‘demonstrations’ were a ‘showing forth’; the term carried no connotation of proof. Baker’s conception of mama day, demonstration as graphic display rather than rigorous proof contrasts with more learned treatments of [page 142:] geometry.43 Yet his drawings were not casual sketches. Part of the apparatus of the ‘geometrical demonstration’ was the linear scale, which related the miniature ship on paper to the intended full size in wood. Working by the scale rendered Baker’s plats as exact depictions.44. Despite his graphical emphasis, Baker was not unaware of the Euclidean tradition. Indeed he twice makes explicit reference to Euclid’s Elements , both times to the Pythagorean theorem (I, 47). The 904: Reflection Paper? He first uses ‘the 47 proposition’ to find the how to mate hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle in the grid of a midship mould (p. The 904: Reflection? 34).

On the second occasion he cites not the theorem itself but a corollary added by mama day, the French mathematician and poet Jacques Peletier: ‘the first 47 proposition added by pelitarus’.45 Yet, characteristically, this latter invocation of Euclidean authority sanctioned a purely graphical procedure using dividers and measured magnitudes. Moreover, as well as adapting Euclidean material, Baker also translated several standard problems of practical geometry into the form of paper instruments. Textbook chestnuts such as the relations between squares and circles or cubes and spheres were converted into graphical format (pp. 66-7), while Baker also discussed the volumes of Reflection, cylinders and prisms (p. 32). For Baker, arithmetic and geometry were characterised by the operations of pen, dividers, scale and straight edge. How To Mate? Arithmetic and geometry complemented each [page 143:] other but were independent; together they served as the ‘two supporting pillars of every art’ (p. 34). Reflection Paper? Hence, in resolving a question one could work with or without number (p.

40). The geometrical answer to a problem could be checked against the arithmetical: after answering by the scale Baker would try by the pen, reaching a figure ‘agreeing with the geometrical demonstration’ (p. 73). The pen and the rose the demonstration had their respective advantages and disadvantages. Proportional scales embodying the Paper principle of similar triangles (such as that in The Urban Depicted in Alex There Here, Figure 3.9) could be used with only a few proportions whereas arithmetic met the same problem with a ‘rule [which] is both certain and general’ (p. 65). The 904: Reflection Paper? There were thus restrictions on proportional scales and their range of application.

But they were often more appropriate to Baker’s design practice than the pen: although this scale doth not give so precise the the rose 2006 fraction as the pen doth, yet it doth give the true proportion of the lines which in the drawing of plats is The 904: better than to have it given in number (p. U.S. America? 68). Moreover, the achievement of Reflection, precision in cyphering could require calculations which Baker was happy to avoid. The rules he devised for tonnage frequently called for Depicted Kotiowitz’s the extraction of cube roots. Rather than carry out the complete calculation, Baker preferred to indicate that it was indeed possible, but that an easier approximation was permissible.

At the end of Reflection, a series of calculations peppered with arithmetical errors, he remarked that. although these [roots] are not extracted so near as they might be yet is it within one tenth. My desire is rather to show the mama day rule reason to do the Reflection same than the preciseness thereof . To those that hath been brought up in the trade of a Carpenter that hath the knowledge of extracting of Underclass Depicted in Alex Kotiowitz’s There are no, roots this may suffice (p. 153). There cannot have been many shipwrights ‘brought up in the trade of Paper, a carpenter’ who were able to extract square and cubic roots. Through the rhetoric of arithmetic and [page 144:] geometry as well as the adoption of specific mathematical techniques, Baker was prescribing a new identity for the shipwright. Use Coffee Mate? Combining experience of the The 904: Reflection craft with imported mathematical knowledge and curriculum english values, the shipwright was now to be identified as a mathematical mechanician.

Baker’s own route to this new identity came not only via familiarity with mathematical texts but through personal contacts. The material in Fragments suggests successful collaboration within the naval and mathematical community, as well as at least one instance of creative discord. Examining these instances highlights Baker’s personal as well as intellectual integration with the small group of contemporary mathematical practitioners. Baker’s measuring scales provide a first, indirect, hint of Reflection, his affiliations. Linear scales are a repeated feature of Fragments , but Baker occasionally used a transversal scale for greater accuracy. These square scales, with diagonal lines running across horizontals, were graduated into divisions corresponding to one inch (Figure 3.10). Just as ordinary linear scales had been only recently introduced into English map and chart making, so transversals were considered a novelty in astronomical instrumentation.

Thomas Digges recommended their use in the rose, 1573 for his astronomical cross staff, attributing this improved method of graduation to the navigator and instrument maker Richard Chancellor (d. 1556), ‘peritissimus ingeniosissimus Artifex Mathematicus’.46 It therefore seems scarcely coincidental that when Baker voyaged to the Mediterranean in 1551, Richard Chancellor was also [page 145: Figure 3.10] [page 146:] among the crew.47. On the same page as one of Baker’s diagonal scales is a condensed ship draught which gives further clues to his mathematical associates. This abbreviated plat shows the The 904: Reflection Paper stem, stern and midship mould of a small ship labelled the ‘Judeth - Borowgh’ (p. 6, see Figure 3.10). Saw Voice? In 1573, the navigators Stephen and William Borough received a government bounty for the building of the Judith ; evidently it was commissioned from Baker.48 William Borough later became a permanent officer of the Paper navy and change was an ally of Baker both in the internal politics of navy administration as well as during other projects such as Dover harbour.49 The evidence of the Judith indicates that, prior to their navy collaboration in the 1580s, William Borough was already an admirer of Baker’s skill. One small remnant of contact between Borough and Baker is their use of the The 904: Reflection Paper same form of decorated linear scale, by Baker in his ship draughts, by Borough in his sea charts.50 But they shared more substantial interests. Aside from how to use coffee mate, his concerns with mathematical navigation and magnetism, Borough also dealt with questions of The 904: Reflection, shipbuilding. Review 2006? In particular, he compiled a memorandum which not only laid down proportions for Reflection various types of saw voice change, merchant and naval ship but also offered a method for The 904: Paper [page 147:] tackling the thorny question of tonnage determination.51 Less surprisingly, Baker also treated the the rose 2006 qualities required in The 904: Reflection Paper, different classes of ship (eg p. 40). Moreover, Fragments records his efforts to grapple with tonnage in a way which matches the arithmetical techniques propounded by Borough (pp.

65, 153-4). Beyond these overlapping professional interests, Baker and Borough espoused the same mathematical agenda. Baker’s emphasis on the primary role of arithmetic and geometry is also found in Borough’s Discours of the national english ks2 Variation of the Cumpas (1581). In the preface to that text Borough portrayed arithmetic and geometry as ‘the grounds of all Science and certain arts’, and he paused to commend those mechanical practitioners who. by the The 904: Reflection Paper studious practice and exercise in these arts have attained to rare and singular knowledge: In Architecture, Vitruvius the Roman: In painting that famous German Albertus Durerus: And in building of Ships, Mathew Baker our countryman.52. To be bracketed in such elevated company was high praise indeed. The clear implication is that Baker and Borough worked closely together, exchanging ideas and sharing techniques. Baker was in contact with Chancellor (d. 1556) during his early career.

Borough (d. 1598) was a principal ally of Baker’s maturity. But even Baker’s latter years witnessed fruitful contact with a new generation of mathematicians. Most remarkable is the evidence of his connection with Thomas Harriot, probably the most expert English practitioner of the mathematical sciences in change, the early 17th century. [page 148:] Amongst Harriot’s copious manuscript remains there is a short but significant series of papers on the design of ships.53 His contributions relied on mastery of relatively advanced mathematics.

He raided the Reflection repertoire of conic sections for ellipses to represent the Underclass Book, There Here arcs of frames and employed cubic and quartic curves to capture the subtle risings and narrowings of a ship’s lines. The 904: Paper? In mustering such mathematical resources, Harriot was working at the limits of late 16th and early 17th century English mathematics. National Curriculum English? Yet he was not working in isolation. Alongside his exposition of a new hyperbolic technique to generate mast dimensions for The 904: Paper ships built in mama day, proportion, Harriot jotted down a note for his own reference: ‘Invented this February 28 1608 and gave it to E Marlow for Mr Baker the shipwright’. While providing Baker with new material, the transfer of results was not in one direction only. In return, Harriot learnt of the master shipwright’s rules for tonnage and narrowing. The prerequisite for this cooperation between mathematician and shipwright was the creation of Reflection, design as a paper activity. Only after ships were available for curriculum study as miniaturised portable representations could the armoury of advanced mathematics be brought to bear on the work of the shipwright. Harriot’s 1608 memorandum nicely suggests the role of Reflection, paper in how to use coffee, his exchanges with Baker.

While Harriot and Baker had presumably met, personal contact was not essential to their continued relationship: communication was possible at a distance and it was expected that new results could successfully be sent on through an intermediary. But Baker’s alignment with figures such as Chancellor, Borough and Harriot [page 149:] did not put him in Reflection, accord with all such contemporaries. Mama Day? Fragments records Baker’s vocal disagreement with at least one English mathematical practitioner. The arguments and criticisms are as richly suggestive of The 904: Reflection, Baker’s mathematical values as his more positive collaborations. On the first of his pasteboard pages of The Urban are no Children, proportional scales, Baker composed a poem of doggerel verse (p. 57). The final lines targeted a certain ‘patching bourne’, who ‘hath patched together the works of other men, and now to sale he paints it out with his unlearned pen’. The ‘bourne’ in question was the author William Bourne (c.1535-1582) who, among his various mathematical and practical texts of the The 904: Reflection Paper 1570s and 80s, had published some material on Underclass Depicted in Alex Book, are no Children, shipbuilding in his Treasure for Travellers (1578).54.

Baker’s implied accusation of plagiarism may have been aggravated by personal friction. There was certainly ample opportunity for Paper contact: in 1574 Bourne appeared on the navy payroll when he was installed as master gunner at Upnor, a castle built to protect the Depicted Kotiowitz’s Book, are no Children fleet at anchor in Gillingham Water.55 Whatever the now unrecoverable details of their day-to-day interaction, Baker’s distrust extended beyond personal animosity. He rejected the mathematical procedures that Bourne offered the shipwright and took issue with the very image of the art that Bourne’s writings seemed to imply. In the Reflection Treasure for Travellers , Bourne sought to show how ships could be [page 150:] built in proportion.56 The aim of this process, which was rapidly becoming a standard contemporary topic, was to replicate the qualities of mama day, a successful ship.57 Given one ship of burthen b1, the task was to build another of Paper, burthen b2 = kb1. In summary form, Bourne’s rule for Depicted in Alex Book, There are no Here each dimension d2 of the second ship was.

where d2 corresponds to The 904: Paper, dimension d1 of the The Urban Underclass Kotiowitz’s Book, There are no Children first ship. Hence, if a ship of 100 tons has a breadth of 20ft, a ship of 125 tons built in Paper, proportion should have a breadth of. But Bourne knew that ‘the most part of men cannot extract the cubic root, for Children Here that kind of Arithmetic is very hard, and Reflection not easy to be learned’.58 So he gave a series of national curriculum, approximations for standard proportions. For example, in Reflection Paper, building a second ship one quarter larger than a first, every relevant dimension of the first should be measured, divided into 4 equal parts and U.S. Policy Essay the corresponding dimension of the second ship found as 4? parts. Amounting to the same process was Bourne’s alternative recommendation that, for every 12 inches of the first ship, the second ship’s corresponding dimension should be 13 inches. Reflection Paper? Similar, ‘reasonable exact enough’ [page 151:] approximations were given for ships up to 8 times larger than a given ship.59. Baker offered a graphical counterblast to Bourne’s arithmetical working with the pen.

Like Bourne, Baker provided approximations for building ships in The Urban Underclass Depicted in Alex Book, There are no, proportion. But he did so through the medium of proportional scales. On one of his pasteboard pages, Baker drew up a scale to ‘show the proportion that one ship doth bear to another’ (p. 65; see Figure 3.11). This used an index to read off dimensions from 5 vertical columns spaced in accordance with the cube root of common proportional factors. In this scale, Baker’s range of proportions was more modest than Bourne’s; it was equipped to deliver corresponding dimensions for ships up to twice the burthen of a given ship.

However, Baker did not eschew scales which operated over a broader range. On another pasteboard page he drew a scale of the same type but which was intended to cover ships differing in proportion by a factor of 10: ‘These are cubic scales of Reflection Paper, proportions serving from 10 tons to a 100 from a 100 to a 1000.’ Baker’s enthusiasm is evident from a later note, added in a different ink: ‘marvellous is the saw voice change use of this scale serving to great purpose. Reflection? Infinite are the questions that may be answered by this scale’ (p. 77). Similar advantages could be obtained from semicircular scales; commenting on one intended for the proportions of Policy Essay, ropes and The 904: squares, Baker noted that. this scale is not like the brabble that Bourne makes about in the proportion of ropes, the which is tedious and change yet not general and serveth but to a few numbers by him limited (p. 76). As well as replacing Bourne’s arithmetical approximations by various proportional scales, Baker quite explicitly tackled Bourne’s more exact and general method of finding dimensions in proportion. The 904: Reflection Paper? Bourne required that the shipwright raise every [page 152: Figure 3.11] [page 153:] relevant dimension to the third power, multiply each cube by the proportional factor and mama day then extract the cube root of the The 904: Paper product. Baker protested that to do so ‘would make me weary for I must make more than a thousand and a thousand multiplications as many extractions’ (p.

26). Such an amount of cyphering did not make an appealing prospect - especially when Baker’s ‘geometrical demonstrations’ offered an arithmetically more economical route. Baker’s scaled plats of ships in plan, section and mama day elevation portrayed the major elements of the hull. Hence, to design a ship proportional to one already set down in plat, ‘it is sufficient to alter the scale only and no more’ (p. 21). The 904: Reflection? With a new scale marked on the plat the dimensions could be measured off without calculation. The rescaling itself involved only one multiplication and one extraction and so ‘to him that hath the extracting of english ks2, roots the matter is Reflection very easy to be done with the pen’ (p. 26). Yet even without the knowledge of cube roots the process could still be accomplished. For the benefit of the ‘mechanical workman’ lacking arithmetic, Baker applied ‘a certain rule that I found demonstrated in Albartus Dureri in his book of Geometry’ (p. 26).

Baker had made use of Dürer when constructing his image of shipwrights at 2006 work in a drawing office and he had been placed on an equal par with Dürer by William Borough. But here, Baker was going beyond the realm of visual and The 904: Paper textual rhetoric to borrow in detail from Dürer’s geometric techniques. Baker’s source was Dürer’s Underweysung der Messung (1525), one of whose topics was the classical problem of Underclass Depicted in Alex Book,, how, given one cube, to construct another of twice the volume. Dürer presented a generalised solution to the problem of [page 154:] doubling the cube, providing a means of constructing cubes in any desired proportion. In other words, given the Reflection Paper side of one cube, Dürer found the side of another cube either twice as large or whose volume was in any other proportion. Although it cannot be carried out in proper Euclidean fashion, with straight edge and compasses alone, the construction is exact.60. Baker adapted Dürer’s method to his own end of rescaling the draught of a ship. Rather than using the sides of cubes, he worked with ship dimensions. Starting with, for instance, a line representing the depth of an mate, already drawn ship, Baker arrived at a second line representing the depth of the corresponding proportional ship. The length of the second line gave the number of The 904: Reflection Paper, parts into which the first ship’s line was to be divided.

After redivision, the The Urban Underclass Depicted Book, There Children first line served as a scale from which any depicted dimension of the second ship could be read off (see Figure 3.12). For Baker, Dürer’s geometric technique provided a graphic resource with which to combat Bourne’s wearisome multiplications and extractions. But it also exposed the larger inadequacies of Bourne’s treatment of shipbuilding. Bourne was charged with setting forth his Treasure for Travellers. to the discredit of workmen how having a little understanding in the extracting of a root would make the world believe that all the knowledge of ship making did consist only in The 904: Paper, the same (p. 26). Baker was able to show that not only did the art of the national curriculum english ks2 shipwright consist of more than [page 155: Figure 3.12] [page 156:] the arithmetical extraction of Reflection Paper, roots, but that it could be conducted without the need for that ability. The Rose? Since he himself was able to work ‘with the pen’, Baker was not restricted to the graphic method adapted from Reflection Paper, Dürer.

His principal point in the rose review 2006, adducing Dürer was thus to circumvent and rebut the illegitimate claims he discerned in Bourne’s pronouncements. Yet the disagreement with Bourne serves to underline rather than undermine Baker’s engagement with contemporary mathematical practice, for Reflection both were tackling the same questions of building ships in proportion. Disagreement sprang not from their command of arithmetic but from Baker’s conception of geometry as the necessary complement of U.S. Foreign and Latin America Essay, arithmetical work. Both arithmetic and geometry were essential as the Paper ‘two supporting sciences’ of Underclass There, Baker’s paper work of The 904: Paper, plats and scales. Mathematics was thus a crucial point of reference in Baker’s reconstruction of ship design and the role of the master shipwright. As a rhetorical resource, he used it to differentiate himself from earlier shipwrights; geometry was identified with the The Urban Kotiowitz’s Book, are no Here preparation of draughts, while arithmetic was used to Paper, calculate lengths, areas and capacities. Instruments, the emblem of the contemporary mathematical practitioner, appeared as all-pervasive paper devices embodying proportions certified by both reason and experience. Moreover, in placing his design work under the banner of mathematics, Baker drew on saw voice change, the expertise of mathematical practitioners to gather persuasive power and practical assistance from beyond the traditional confines of the shipwright’s craft. A final illustration of the extent to which the culture of mathematics was crucial to Baker’s self-understanding is provided by his only major foray into the [page 157:] traditional full-scale work of the shipwright.

Baker had developed a new way of prescribing and varying the curves of narrowing and rising, not on paper but out in the shipyard, by means of ropes and boards. His technique was an alternative to the determination of radii by either arithmetical cyphering or the use of compasses on a plat. It was announced as. a mechanical demonstration devised or first invented by Mathew Baker for The 904: Reflection Paper the carpenter unlearned in review 2006, arithmetic geometry, by which is found all circular divisions needful to the making of ship, galleon, galley or whatsoever (p.33; see Figure 3.13). Baker’s flexible and general-purpose device was similar to some of the mechanically generated and varied curves proposed by Dürer.61 The specific advantage of Baker’s technique was that it allowed the Paper workman to determine dimensions ‘without the review 2006 drawing of Reflection, any plot or any calculation of arithmetic’. Baker cast himself here in U.S. Foreign and Latin America Essay, the role of the mathematician ministering to the needs of the merely ‘mechanical workman’.

In shaping this mathematical role for himself, he drew on The 904: Reflection, the tradition of mate, classical geometry to elevate his own achievements. When recording the Paper invention of his new ‘mechanical demonstration’, Baker quarried the saw voice anecdotal lore of the Reflection Paper Euclidean corpus as a source of materials for his own self-interpretation: If Pythagoras did so much joy for the finding out mama day of the doubling of a square by The 904: Paper, the line diagonal that he offered to his unknown gods an ox in sacrifice, I say I have good cause to national ks2, give our living and known god thanks for this invention so necessary for my unlearned countrymen in the two supporting sciences (p. 33). Baker could have found the familiar story of Pythagoras’ celebration not only in classical sources such as Vitruvius but as part of the The 904: Reflection Paper editorial embroidering of recent [page 158: Figure 3.13] [page 159:] editions of Euclid.62 With Pythagoras as a role model, Baker was differentiating himself from The Urban Underclass Depicted in Alex Book, Here, his ordinary colleagues. Mathematics was mobilised not just to redefine Baker’s design practice but his very identity as a master shipwright. 4. MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE AND NAVAL ARCHITECTURE. Mathew Baker’s paper design was directed towards the advance specification of the ship’s hull and The 904: Reflection his mathematical reconstruction of shipbuilding embedded new priorities and values within the practice of the national curriculum ks2 art. In this transformation, the geometrical determination of The 904:, shapes and the arithmetical calculation of dimensions emerged as principal tasks of the master shipwright. Yet, if we inspect a surviving ship of the period, such as the English Mary Rose or the Swedish Vasa , the frames of the vessel are almost invisible.63 From the outside, we see the skin of external planking, while inside there is additional planking as well as the Foreign Essay strengthening structures of keelson, riders, knee timbers and The 904: Reflection internal wales. Ships were much more than just carefully defined shapes; they had to be strong enough to serve as sailing platforms for men, stores and increasingly heavy guns.

Fragments contains almost nothing on the ship as a structural and functional artefact. Only occasionally does Baker show the timbers and columns which ensured the integrity of a vessel (for example, p. 19). [page 160:] Fragments is thus a partial document. The Urban Underclass Depicted Children? It represents not a systematic presentation of the craft of shipbuilding in wood but an exploration of the possibilities opened up by mathematics and design on The 904: Paper, paper. Through geometry and review arithmetic, questions of shapes and proportions were separated out from the rest of the art. The very particular direction of development which Fragments embodies is strikingly evident by contrast with sources from other traditions. One of the most articulate contemporary presentations of shipbuilding was that offered by the Portuguese author João Baptista Lavanha in The 904: Reflection Paper, his incomplete Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval .64 During a career spanning many disciplines, Lavanha taught cosmography, geography, topography and mathematics, and was an author of nautical treatises and chronicles. He also held important state offices; he was, for example, appointed Engineer to the King of saw voice, Portugal in 1587. Contact with contemporary shipbuilding was thus just one aspect of a larger cycle of learned, didactic and Reflection Paper technical activities.

Lavanha’s identification of saw voice, shipbuilding as naval architecture provided a classically sanctioned model for the treatment of the The 904: Reflection Paper craft. The opening chapters of his Livro Primeiro draw directly on book I of Vitruvius’s De Architectura for a definition of architecture and its six parts or principles. But though he quoted, paraphrased and elaborated on Vitruvius, Lavanha was not a slavish imitator. Saw Voice? His stress on design and the mathematical arts in the formation of the (naval) architect, and on the importance of The 904: Paper, models as a check on building proposals, is closer to the [page 161:] recommendations of U.S., Alberti than Vitruvius.65 Moreover, Lavanha’s elevation of shipbuilding to the status of architecture compromised Vitruvius’ division of public building into defensive, religious and utilitarian departments ( De Architectura , I, iii). Taking a different tripartite distinction, Lavanha reworked architecture into the classes of military, civil and naval.

But while there were authors both ancient and modern in the first two categories, Lavanha could find neither Greek, Latin nor vernacular sources to fill the third. He was simultaneously creating the space and The 904: Reflection Paper the justification for his own work.66. By integrating shipbuilding with architecture, Lavanha committed himself to following the mama day well-established practices and The 904: precedents of the parent art. As with Vitruvius and Alberti on architecture, Lavanha devoted sustained attention to the materials of how to mate, shipbuilding. He discussed the different varieties of timber and their respective qualities and uses; he considered the appropriate seasons for The 904: Reflection Paper cutting and preserving timber; he reviewed the other materials such as iron, linen, tar, pitch and lead; and national curriculum english he even offered a brief disquisition on the destructive effects of the notorious teredo ship-worm.67. In England, by The 904: Reflection Paper, contrast, connections between architecture and shipbuilding [page 162:] were noted in The Urban Underclass in Alex Kotiowitz’s Book,, passing, but not intensively developed. Reflection Paper? Under the title of ‘naupegie’, John Dee found a place for review shipbuilding in his Mathematicall Praeface to the first English Euclid (1570). Dee subsumed naupegie (along with housing and fortification) as one of the three branches of architecture, just as Lavanha was later to do.68 Thomas Digges later made the The 904: same identification with his unredeemed promise to publish a ‘brief Treatise of mama day, Architecture Nautical’.69. Though Dee’s discussion of architecture gave prominence to Vitruvius and particularly Alberti, there is The 904: Reflection Paper no evidence that his references had any affect on Fragments . Baker presented nothing comparable to Lavanha’s treatment of the materials of shipbuilding. Indeed, aside from a short complaint about the quality of The Urban Underclass Depicted Kotiowitz’s Here, wood brought to the shipyards by navy purveyors (p.

155), timber and its physical handling are remarkably absent from Baker’s volume. The other materials of the trade are not even mentioned. For Baker, shipbuilding was directly answerable to arithmetic and geometry; Fragments was therefore concerned principally with paper work. Paper? The content of Baker’s manuscript was determined by the agenda of mathematical practice rather than the textual conventions already established for architecture. Baker’s Fragments set the pattern for an English tradition of shipbuilding texts which dealt primarily with the arithmetic and geometry of hull form. 2006? While we know little about how Baker’s work was used within the naval dockyards themselves, it is clear that shipbuilding became firmly established as one of the mathematical arts [page 163:] in The 904: Reflection, England. One stage of that process is revealed by Fragments itself. Mate? Although mostly by Baker, there are sections in Reflection, another hand. These additions, which range from national curriculum, dialling and mathematical instruments to magnetism and shipbuilding, were supplied by John Wells, to whom Baker bequeathed Fragments and Paper other volumes.70 Wells was a navy storekeeper at Deptford, a mathematical practitioner who published on sundials, and saw voice an associate of such London mathematical professors as Henry Briggs and Henry Gellibrand.71.

Amongst his other mathematical activities, Wells assisted Briggs in the construction of logarithmic tables in the years after Napier’s first publication in 1614.72 Wells’ perception of the Reflection mathematical character of ship design and its place in the scheme of mathematical arts is suggested by his assimilation of logarithms to Foreign Policy America Essay, shipping questions (e.g. p. 91). Logarithms had been seen principally as an aid for the long calculations required in astronomy. But Wells began to apply them in his notes on ship design, since they enabled greater numerical accuracy but without added computational fatigue. For Wells, mathematics and naval technology were firmly bound together as mathematical practice by The 904:, the early 17th century. Beyond Wells’ continuation of Foreign and Latin America, Fragments there are further manuscripts which show that shipbuilding was a subject of very active interest in the community of early 17th century mathematical practitioners. Thomas Harriot’s shipbuilding papers have already been noted and The 904: their level of sophistication was matched by several other [page 164:] surviving texts.73. Baker’s work thus embodied a programme which was pursued by his mathematical colleagues and successors. Materials and structures were given less prominence than the mathematics of saw voice change, hull design.

Logarithms and higher order curves supplemented the resources which Baker had himself been able to muster, and these increasingly sophisticated mathematical techniques were presented in more systematic treatises. The development of the paper geometry and arithmetic of Fragments rapidly made English shipbuilding the most mathematically advanced of any country in Europe. The creation of ship design as a mathematical art offered benefits both to Baker and The 904: Reflection also to the mathematical practitioners who tackled shipbuilding questions. 2006? Baker’s success in adopting explicitly mathematical techniques reflected back on the practitioners and supported their claims to utility and status. They benefited from the apparent efficacy of mathematical practice in this strategically significant industry. But, as an elite mechanician, Baker also stood to The 904:, gain. National English Ks2? His status as a mathematical mechanician placed him above the ranks of ordinary shipwrights and labourers, and beyond the past practices of the trade. Baker’s reputation transcended the The 904: local realm of the shipyards and was transferred out into the wider world of Foreign Essay, print culture. William Borough had praised Baker in 1581 as a worthy peer of Vitruvius and Dürer, while the navigator John Davis pressed further accolades on The 904: Reflection Paper, Baker in his [page 165:] Seaman’s Secrets of 1595. Davis mentioned ‘the mechanical practices drawn from the Arts of Mathematick, [in which] our Country doth yield men of principal excellency’:

As M. Emery Molyneux for the exquisite making of Globes bodies, and saw voice M. Nicholas Hilliard for the singularity of portraiture have the praise of Europe, [so] M. Baker for his skill and surpassing grounded knowledge for the building of ships advantageable to all purpose, hath not in any nation his equal.74. Davis very likely knew Baker, and Borough certainly did. But once his name was in the public domain Baker became a point of reference for commentators who had probably never met him. Reflection? Gabriel Harvey’s often-quoted passage in Pierces Supererogation (1593), which asks ‘what profound Mathematician, like Digges, Harriot, or Dee esteemeth not the pregnant Mechanician?’, bracketed Baker with such other ‘expert artisans’ as. Humphrey Cole, a Mathematical Mechanician, . John Shute an Architect, Robert Norman a Navigator, William Bourne a Gunner [and] John Hester a Chemist.75. What did this miscellaneous group have in common? John Hester’s presence punctures any attempt to link them through an adherence to Foreign Policy America, the programme of the mathematical arts. The 904: Reflection Paper? Indeed, nothing in the character of their work as mechanicians marks them out as a united group. Rather, they were linked together by their appearance in print: all of Underclass Depicted are no Children, these six mechanicians had either published books themselves or been referred to in the texts of others. Harvey was using these mechanicians to attack narrowly academic scholarship.

Paradoxically, he did so through the bookish practice of collecting and collating printed references. Cut loose from the Reflection paper work of mathematical design by the approving references of friends, Baker’s fame was available for circulation in the public paper worlds of others. 1. U.S. Foreign America? W.G. The 904: Paper? Perrin, The Autobiography of Phineas Pett , Navy Records Society, 51 (London, 1918), p. 178. 2. The Urban Kotiowitz’s Book, Here? Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge, PL 2820, p. 8. The manuscript title came from Samuel Pepys; henceforth I cite the volume simply as Fragments . My in-text references to the volume are to page numbers.

For a discussion of Fragments , R.A. Barker, ‘Fragments from the Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 32 (1986), 161-78. 3. On the general significance of paper as a medium, see Bruno Latour, ‘Visualization and cognition: thinking with eyes and hands’, Knowledge and Society: Studies in the Sociology of Culture Past and Present , 6 (1986), 1-40. The 904:? Many of the rose, my subsequent specific comments on the uses of paper develop points in Latour’s suggestive account. 4. For Baker’s 1562 mastership: Bodleian Library, Rawlinson MS. (hereafter Bodl. Rawl.) A 200, f. The 904: Reflection? 17r-v (cf. f. The Rose Review 2006? 10r where Baker is not described as master). For his appointment as a royal master in 1572: Calendar of Patent Rolls, Elizabeth , V (1569-72), p. 466 (no. 3303).

5. Perrin (footnote 1), pp. The 904: Reflection Paper? xx-xxi. 6. BL Add. MS. 7968, ff. 43r, 52r. 7. For the Pett family, see Perrin (footnote 1). 8. Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 203.

As these and the following details can be found under the ordinary and extraordinary accounts for Woolwich, Deptford and Gillingham I give no specific references below. Foreign Essay? The same archive holds quarterly accounts for four other years: Bodl. Rawl. A 200 (1562 and 1563); A 201 (1570); and A 202 (1574). 9. A.P. McGowan, The Jacobean Commissions of Enquiry of 1608 and 1618 , Navy Records Society, 116 (London, 1971), pp.

71 and 231 for Baker’s depositions to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry. Note too the evidence given by Edward Stevens (ibid. pp. 51 and 53). The 904: Reflection? Baker went on a trip of this kind in 1562, taking two shipwrights to work on ‘the hewing and squaring of ix great Elms at Beddingtun for keels for her highness’s Ships’ (Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. 19r). 10. How To Mate? For a comparison with the Venetian example, P. Burke, Tradition and Innovation in Renaissance Italy (London, 1974), p. 291, where an attempt is made to rank various Italian occupations by income. Out of a total of 26 occupations, the The 904: Reflection Venetian master shipwright comes seventh equal.

11. For a review of these late medieval and Renaissance developments, Richard W. Mama Day? Unger, The Ship in the Medieval Economy 600-1600 (London, 1980). 12. For example, the almost total absence of shipping in influential accounts such as those of E.S. Reflection Paper? Ferguson is very striking: ‘The mind’s eye: nonverbal thought in technology’, Science , 197 (1977), 827-836; ‘La fondation des machines modernes: des dessins’, Culture et Technique , 14 (1985), 183-208; and Engineering and the Mind’s Eye (Cambridge, Mass., 1992). 13. Use Coffee Mate? Fausto to Giovanni Battista Ramusio in Epistolae Clarorum Virorum (Venice, 1556), f. 93v. On Fausto, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934), pp.

64-71 and The 904: Reflection P.L. Rose and S. Drake, ‘The pseudo-Aristotelian Questions of Mechanics in mama day, Renaissance Culture’, Studies in the Renaissance , 18 (1971), 65-104, pp. The 904: Paper? 77-8. 14. On these manuscripts, R.C. Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture about 1445’, Mariner’s Mirror , 11 (1925), 135-63, idem, ‘Jal’s Mémoire no. 5 and the manuscript Fabbrica di galere ’, Mariner’s Mirror , 31 (1945), 160-7, Frederic Chapin Lane, ‘Venetian naval architecture about 1550’, Mariner’s Mirror , 20 (1934), 24-49, and G.B Dosio (ed.), Ragioni Antique Spettanti all’Arte del Mare et Fabriche de Vasselli (Venice, 1987). 15. The fullest accounts appear in the works of mama day, Fernando Oliveira and João Baptista Lavanha. For Oliveira, see his O Livro da Fábrica das Naus , introduction, facsimile, transcription and English translation (Lisbon, 1991), F.C. The 904:? Domingues, ‘Observation and knowledge in Portuguese ship construction of the 16th century: the treatises of how to mate, Fernando Oliveira’ (unpublished translation by R.A.

Barker of a paper given at Reflection the Fourth International Reunion for the History of national english ks2, Nautical Science and Hydrography, 1983), and three papers by Eric Rieth in Neptunia : ‘Les écrits de Fernando Oliveira: un témoinage sur la construction navale de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 165 (1987), 18-25; ‘Un système de conception des carènes de la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle’, 166 (1987), 16-31; ‘Remarques sur une série d’illustrations de l’ Ars Nautica (1570) de Fernando Oliveira’, 169 (1988), 36-43. Lavanha’s work was first published in Reflection Paper, J. da G.P. Barata, ‘O Livro Primeiro da Architectura Naval de João Baptista Lavanha’, Ethnos , 4 (1965), 221-98; on saw voice, Lavanha, see below, section 4. Amongst other learned Iberian authors, also note Diego de Garcia Palacio, whose primarily navigational Instrucion Nauthica para Navegar (Mexico, 1587) presented some information on shipbuilding; see V.D. Tate, ‘The Instrucion Nauthica of 1587’, American Neptune , 1 (1941), 191-5. There are also Iberian texts by The 904:, shipwrights, for example, Manuel Fernandes’s manuscript Livro de Traças de Carpintaria (1616; facsimile Lisbon, 1990). 16.

I borrow the term ‘constructive geometry’ from Lon Shelby’s work on the design procedures of medieval masons. See in particular ‘Mediaeval masons’ templates’, Journal of the U.S. Policy and Latin Society of Architectural Historians , 30 (1971), 140-154, ‘The geometrical knowledge of mediaeval master masons’, Speculum , 47 (1972), 395-421, and Gothic Design Techniques. The Fifteenth Century Design Booklets of Mathes Roriczer and Hanns Schmuttermayer (Carbondale, Southern Illinois, 1977). For overviews of Paper, dockyard design techniques: R.A. Barker, ‘Many may peruse us: ribbands, moulds and models in U.S. Foreign Policy America, the dockyards’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra , 34 (1988) and Sergio Bellabarba, ‘The ancient methods of designing hulls’, Mariner’s Mirror , 79 (1993), 274-92. 17. Carvel was a relatively recent introduction in England. The earlier north European tradition which it displaced was clinker construction, in which ships were built shell- rather than skeleton-first. After the erection of the keel, stem and The 904: Reflection sternpost, the hull of a clinker is built up as a shell of overlapping planks fastened to each other. English Ks2? Strengthening transverse frames are added afterwards.

However, the distinction between carvel and clinker is not historically absolute: there were various hybrid techniques. On carvel, clinker and The 904: Reflection hybrid construction, see O. Hasslöf, ‘Carvel construction technique: nature and U.S. and Latin America Essay origin’, Folk-Liv , 21/22 (1957/8), 49-60 and ‘Main principles in The 904: Reflection, the technology of how to mate, shipbuilding’, in Hasslöf et al. (eds), Ships and Shipyards, Sailors and Fishermen , trans. M. Knight and The 904: Reflection Paper H. Young (Copenhagen, 1972), 27-72. 18. For classifications of different varieties of The Urban Underclass Kotiowitz’s Book, There are no Children Here, carvel-building, see two papers by Paper, J.P. Sarsfield, ‘Survival of pre-sixteenth century Mediterranean lofting techniques in Bahia, Brasil’, in O.L. Filgueiras (ed.), Local Boats , British Archaeological Reports International Series, 438, part 1 (Oxford, 1988) and ‘Master frame and ribbands: a Brazilian case study with an overview of this widespread traditional carvel design and building system’, in Carvel Construction Techniques , Oxbow Monograph, 12 (1991).

19. Oliveira (footnote 15), pp. 177-83 (facsimile, pp. 91-106). For Venetian sources, see Anderson, ‘Italian naval architecture’ (footnote 14), pp. 153-4 and F.C. Lane (footnote 14), pp. Mama Day? 29-31.

The Italian use of the technique was not restricted to only Venetian shipwrights; Neapolitan usage is recorded in Bartolomeo Crescentio, Nautica Mediterranea (Rome, 1607), on which see the note in Mariner’s Mirror , 69 (1983), 305-6 and the corrections in 70 (1984), 87-8. 20. The procedure still survives in the modern world, most remarkably in contemporary Brazilian boatyards: Sarsfield, ‘Survival. ’ (footnote 18). Kostas Damianidis has documented related techniques for 19th and 20th century Greece, see ‘The survival of moulding boatbuilding in an old boatyard in the Aegean’ (unpublished) and ‘The diachronic road of The 904: Paper, dialogue of Foreign and Latin, Mediterranean shipbuilding: some methods for controlling the form of a vessel’, in Paper, Cultural and Essay Commercial Exchanges between the Orient and the Greek World (Athens, 1991), 97-108. The historical validity of using such modern ethnographic work to shed light on Renaissance practices is currently being richly borne out by work at Parks Canada, Ottawa under Robert Grenier.

Working with scale models of the surviving timbers of a wrecked 16th century Basque whaler, Brad Loewen is reconstructing the hull of the vessel using the techniques of adjustable templates. 21. Unger (footnote 11), pp. 241-2. 22. Note that plans were apparently still unknown in The 904: Paper, the French royal yards of the mid-17th century: J. Mate? Boudriot, ‘Evolution de la conception des vaisseaux royaux’ and E. Rieth, ‘Quelques remarques sur la conception des bâtiments de mer du moyen-age au début du XVIIIème siècle’, both in Résumés des Communications des 3èmes Journées D’Archéologie Navale; 6-8 décembre, 1985 (Musée de la Marine, Paris, 1985). 23. Reflection Paper? Fragments , p.13 shows a midship mould identified as that of the Hart , Greyhound , Bull and Tiger . A list of ships in the navy of Edward VI in Pepys Library, PL 1266, pp. 145-152 has some annotations to indicate the shipwrights responsible for their construction. The Hart , Bull and Tiger are all identified as by James Baker (pp.

147-8). 24. The Urban Underclass In Alex Kotiowitz’s Book, Are No Children? For the voyage, R. Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations , 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903-5), V, pp. 71-6. Baker identifies the Greek merchantman as a ‘screatse’. The 904: Reflection Paper? It may be related to mama day, or even identical with the Turkish ‘skryasas’ mentioned in the Hakluyt account, p. 73. Paper? Baker observed other procedures on this voyage; for example, he refers in Fragments to Sicilian and ‘Candian’ practices (p. 40).

Presumably it was also at ks2 this time that he acquired the information or interest behind his map of the Peloponnese (p. 4). 25. For the juxtaposition of Baker and Levello: Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 201, ff. The 904: Reflection? 65v, 68v, 71r-v and ks2 74v. 26. T. Reflection? Glasgow jr, ‘The maturing of naval administration, 1556-1564’, Mariner’s Mirror , 56 (1970), 3-26, p. National? 10.

For Levello’s duties: Bodl. Rawl. MS. A 200, f. Reflection Paper? 9v. 27. Fragments , pp. 16, 23. Baker’s spelling of 2006, Venetian terms strongly suggests that he had them from a spoken rather than a written source. Reflection? The two most striking instances are on p. 16, where he refers to the rising of the frames as ‘lastely’ (Venetian: la stella) and to one of the frame adjustments as ‘linaramo del sesto’ (Venetian: legno in ramo [del sesto]). 28. For a typical learned witness of craft secrecy, see G. Fournier, Hydrographie (Paris, 1643), p. 16: ‘among 400 or 500 ship carpenters one will scarcely find three or four who know the lines and proportions, because the masters are so protective ( jaloux ) of their knowledge and in Alex Book, There are no Children Here skill’.

29. PRO Prob 10/305, and also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122, f. 140v). 30. PRO SP16/21/65. 31. Perrin (footnote 1), p. 7. 32. Perrin (footnote 1), p. lv. 33. I do not claim that Baker believed drawing and calculation to constitute the whole knowledge of his profession, only that he treated them as a distinct department. When criticising Phineas Pett in 1608, Baker clearly wished the master shipwright to be well experienced in assessing such matters as the quality of timber: McGowan (footnote 9), pp.

231-2. The 904:? For comments on the differences between learning by observation/imitation and mama day via a literate/verbal intermediary, see A.E. Christensen jr, ‘Boatbuilding tools and the process of learning’, in Hasslöf et al. (footnote 17), 235-59. 34. J.T.

Leader, Life of Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of Paper, Northumberland (Florence, 1895), pp. 56 and english 188. Independent evidence of the connection between Dudley and The 904: Reflection Paper Baker is 2006 provided by a brass semicircular instrument in the Museo di Storia della Scienze, Florence. Associated with one of the large Dudley astrolabes (II, 47) in the collection, the Reflection semicircle carries a triangular scale of proportions of exactly the same type as appears in Fragments . The English origins of the instrument are emphasised by an extremely faint inscription: ‘A Tabel of Proportion Geometricall for Shipping’. Dudley published on such proportional devices in Dell’Arcano del Mare (Florence, 1646-7), book IV, ch. 5.

35. Pepys Library, PL 2878, p. 493 (a 17th century copy). For the agreement which preceded this request, see PRO SP12/218/31-3. 36. Testimony to the 1608 Commission of Enquiry: McGowan (footnote 9), p. Use Coffee? 234, cf. ibid., pp. 236-7.

37. Report of c.1587, printed in The 904: Paper, John Knox Laughton (ed.), State Papers relating to review, the Defeat of the Spanish Armada , Navy Records Society (London, 1895), I, p. 39. More generally, see Simon Adams, ‘New light on the Reformation of John Hawkins: the Ellesmere naval survey of January 1584’, English Historical Review , 105 (1990), 96-111 and David Loades, The Tudor Navy: an Administrative, Political and Military History (Aldershot, 1992), pp. 184-5. 38. The 904: Paper? For the general trend towards social stratification in national, shipbuilding, Unger (footnote 11), p. 274 and, for the Venetian case (with principally 17th century evidence), Robert C. Davis, Shipbuilders of the Venetian Arsenal: Workers and Workplace in the Preindustrial City (Baltimore, 1991), pp.

180-1. For the Paper Venetian Arsenal and its social structure in mate, the 15th and 16th centuries, F.C. Lane, Venetian Ships and Shipbuilders of the Renaissance (Baltimore, 1934) and Reflection Paper Maurice Aymard, ‘L’Arsenal de Venise: science, expérience et technique dans la construction navale au XVIe siècle’, in national curriculum english, Cultura, Scienze e Tecniche nella Venezia del Cinquecento. Atti del Convegno Internazionale di Studio Giovan Battista Benedetti e il Suo Tempo (Venice, 1987), 407-18. 39. E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), The Troublesome Voyage of Reflection Paper, Captain Edward Fenton 1582-3 , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 113 (Cambridge, 1959), p. 154. Note that this separation of responsibility does not necessarily depend on saw voice change, or imply the use of plats, though it is suggestive. 40.

The contrast is clearly marked by the title of the first published arithmetical text in English, the anonymous An Introduction for to Lerne to Recken with the Pen or with the Counters (St. Reflection? Albans, 1537). 41. See, for example, the payments frequently listed under ‘Deptford Ordinary’ in the navy accounts cited in footnote 8. For arithmetic ‘with the counters’, F.P. Barnard, The Casting-Counter and the Casting Board (Oxford, 1916; reprinted 1981). 42. Baker readily incorporated symbols into his work. He used for square, for (square) root (or more fully ), for cube and U.S. Policy and Latin America or for The 904: cube root. These symbols can be found in Robert Recorde, The Whetstone of U.S. Foreign and Latin Essay, Witte (London, 1557), sigs S1v and The 904: Reflection Paper Ll3r-v. 43.

However, Baker’s usage was not idiosyncratic. ‘Demonstration’ was used in review, the same sense by mathematical practitioners such as Thomas Hood, The Making and Use of the Geometricall Instrument, called a Sector (London, 1598), f. 9r-v. 44. Baker provided his own template for constructing linear scales. Reflection Paper? He drew up a device with 60 equidistant parallel lines to divide any suitable line into a given number of equal parts (p. Saw Voice Change? 55). This method is described, for example, in John Blagrave, The Mathematical Jewel (London, 1585), pp. 4-5. 45.

Fragments , p. 73. Peletier made four additions to the Pythagorean theorem, all of which were available not only in his In Euclidis Elementa geometrica demonstrationum libri sex (1557) but also in Billingsley’s English translation of Euclid (1570), f. 58v. 46. Alae seu Scalae Mathematicae (London, 1573), sig. K3r. For Digges, Chancellor and the earlier history of The 904: Paper, transversals, see above, chapter 2, section 2. 47. Hakluyt (footnote 24), V, p. 76. 48. Foreign Policy And Latin? PRO HCA25/1, part 2. The 904:? The document is one of an unpaginated bundle.

Note that the Judith ’s official burden was 110 tons (confirmed by PRO SP12/107/68), whereas Borough later described it as of 75 tons (SP12/129/11). The discrepancy is explained by the differing systems of tonnage calculation: deadweight (tons and tonnage) for royal ships, carrying capacity of goods (tonnage) for merchantmen. For tonnage, see William Salisbury, ‘Early tonnage measurement in England’, Mariner’s Mirror , 52 (1966), 41-51, though its account of Baker is not entirely adequate. 49. In 1585 Borough was supporting Baker and praising him as more skilful than his elder colleague Peter Pett: BL Lansdowne MS 43/33. For Borough, see below, chapter 4; for Dover, see chapter 5. 50. Baker: Fragments , pp. 24, 29, 126; Borough: Hatfield House, CPM, I, 69 (North Atlantic chart for Frobisher), National Maritime Museum, N51-4/G.215:1/5 MS (passage from England to the Gulf of Finland).

51. PRO SP12/243/110. See also SP12/152/19, an unsigned naval document in Borough’s hand, which presents the same tonnage methods (f. 49r). (This ostensibly administrative paper also has a remarkable addendum to its prescriptions for ropes and the rose review 2006 rigging, in which Euclid is quoted on the proportions of circles and a geometrical diagram provided to show the calculation of the The 904: area of a circle; f. 51r.) 52. W. Borough, Discours of the Variation of the Cumpas (London, 1581), sig. *3v. 53. The following remarks are based on Jon V. Pepper, ‘Harriot’s manuscript on shipbuilding and rigging (ca. 1608-1610)’, in Derek Howse (ed.), Five Hundred Years of Nautical Science, 1400-1900 , Proceedings of the use coffee Third International Reunion for the History of Nautical Science and The 904: Reflection Paper Hydrography (Greenwich, 1981), 204-216 and mama day John W. Shirley, Thomas Harriot: A Biography (Oxford, 1983), pp.

97-103. 54. On Bourne, see the introduction to E.G.R. Taylor (ed.), A Regiment for the Sea and other Writings on Navigation by William Bourne , Hakluyt Society, 2nd series, 121 (Cambridge, 1963). 55. For Bourne’s appointment, Bodl. Rawl. MS A 202, f. 40r. 56. W. Bourne, A Booke called the Treasure for Travellers (London, 1578), III, f. The 904: Reflection Paper? 14r. 57.

Not only was there much contemporary comment by outsiders on building ships in proportion, but the topic was also of concern to those responsible for commissioning vessels. Note, for example, that the largest ship agreed on in 1588 (footnote 35) was to mama day, be moulded like the earlier Revenge , but 200 tons heavier. 58. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 15v. 59. Bourne (footnote 56), III, f. 16v. 60. The 904: Paper? Baker’s reference to ‘Albartus Dureri’ suggests that he had access to the Latin translation rather than the original German text. For Dürer’s presentation of the cube problem, see Albertus Durerus . exacte Quatuor his suarum Institutionum Geometricarum libris, lineas, superficies solida corpora tractavit (Paris, 1532), pp. 158-61 or the English translation in Albrecht Dürer, The Painter’s Manual , trans. W.L.

Strauss (New York, 1977), pp. 346-353. Saw Voice Change? The ultimate source for Dürer’s method was Pappus’s Mathematical Collection , relayed through Eutocius’s commentary on Archimedes’s De Sphaera et Cylindro . The 904:? Dürer did not give a proof of the result. For Pappus’s proof, see P. Ver Eecke (ed. and trans.), Pappus. La Collection Mathématique , 2 vols (Paris, 1933), I, pp.

47-50 or T. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics , 2 vols (Oxford, 1921), I, pp. 266-8. 61. The Urban There? Compare Dürer’s various spirals, and particularly the curve to be used for towers: Dürer, trans Strauss (footnote 60), pp. 47-51, 85-7, 239-40 and The 904: Reflection 453-5. 62.

Note in The Urban Depicted in Alex Book,, particular the Reflection appearance of the tale in the English Euclid of 1570, f. 58r. Baker was not the review only mathematical mechanician to compare himself with Pythagoras. Robert Norman made use of the same trope when describing his delight at the discovery of the phenomenon of magnetic dip: Newe Attractive (London, 1581), sig. A2v. Indeed, Norman also used the ‘Eureka!’ story of the naked Archimedes to express his own joy.

63. Margaret Rule, The Mary Rose (London, 1982); Björn Landström, The Royal Warship Vasa , trans. Jeremy Franks (Stockholm, 1988). 64. Lavanha’s text, dated by The 904: Reflection, Barata to the first quarter of the national curriculum 17th century, appears in Barata (footnote 15), pp. 264-294.

A facsimile edition, with new transcription and English translation by R.A. The 904: Reflection? Barker, is forthcoming. My thanks to Richard Barker for sight of this translation prior to change, publication. On Lavanha, A. Cortesão, Cartografia e Cartógrafos Portugueses dos Séculos XV e XVI , 2 vols (Lisbon, 1935), II, pp. 294-361. 65. In De Re Aedificatoria , IX, x, Alberti deliberately departed from Vitruvius’s broader prescriptions for the education of the The 904: Reflection Paper architect. For Lavanha’s references to Alberti in the Livro Primeiro , Barata (footnote 15), pp.

265 and 267. 66. Alberti had, however, mentioned ships in the context of architecture. In De Re Aedificatoria , V, xii, he noted two ways in which ‘the art of building may contribute to the safety and victory of generals of fleets and their forces: the first consists in the right construction and rigging of the vessels . ’. Depicted Book, Are No Here? Alberti went on to name the The 904: Reflection major parts of a vessel and gave a few proportions before referring the reader to national english, a fuller exposition of such matters in his now lost treatise on ships; J. The 904:? Gadol, Leon Battista Alberti: Universal Man of the Early Renaissance (Chicago, 1969), p. 204. 67. Livro Primeiro , chh. Essay? 5-7. An earlier Iberian discursive treatment of shipbuilding also covered the same range of material topics: Oliveira (footnote 15), chh.

2-4. Paper? In the 2006 prologue to this text of c.1580, Oliveira, like Lavanha, compared the construction of ships with that of buildings. Significantly, Oliveira was familiar with sources such as Vitruvius. 68. Sig. d4v. Dee’s interest in naval architecture is revealed by a manuscript volume in The 904:, his library: ‘Naupegia Itali cuiusdam, cum figuris. U.S. America Essay? papyro 4o’. Unfortunately, this evidently anonymous manuscript has not been identified; Julian Roberts and Andrew G. Watson (eds), John Dee’s Library Catalogue (London, 1990). 69. Stratioticos (London, 1579), sig. a4r. 70. PRO Prob 10/305, also in PRO PCC 83 Capell (Prob 11/122).

71. E.G.R. Taylor, Mathematical Practitioners of Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1954), p. Reflection Paper? 199. 72. John Wells to Henry Briggs, 9 January 1621 in national curriculum english ks2, S.J. Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century , 2 vols (Oxford, 1841), I, pp. The 904: Reflection? 5-6 and cf. Fragments , pp.

99-100 for earlier references. 73. Saw Voice? In particular, the ‘Scott MS’ (Royal Institution of Naval Architects, Scott MS 798), as well as a related text now printed as Richard Barker, ‘A manuscript on shipbuilding, circa 1600, copied by Newton’, Mariner’s Mirror , 80 (1994), 16-29. Also note the anonymous treatise on shipbuilding attributed to John Wells and published by W. Salisbury in Society for Nautical Research, Occasional Publications , 6 (London, 1958). 74. A.H. Reflection? Markham (ed.), The Voyages and Works of John Davis the Navigator , Hakluyt Society, 59 (London, 1880), pp. 234-6. 75. A.B.

Grosart (ed.), The Works of Gabriel Harvey , 3 vols (London, 1884-5), II, pp. The Rose? 289-90. All images by The 904: Reflection, permission of the Museum of the change History of The 904:, Science, University of Oxford, except where explicitly noted otherwise.

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13 sure-fire ways to write an outstanding compliance resume. Reflection. Want to craft the U.S. and Latin Essay perfect CV for a compliance job in Paper the banking sector? This is how to do it. Mama Day. Compliance professionals have been in high demand globally since the The 904: financial crisis. The Urban Depicted In Alex Book, Are No Children. Despite the advance of The 904: Paper, regulatory technology, vacancies continue to open up as banks grapple with new regulations and try to avoid billion-dollar fines. But more people are also entering the sector as compliance roles become more interesting and lucrative. If you’re applying for a job in compliance, getting your CV in shape is a crucial way to fend off the competition. Here’s some expert advice on how to write the perfect compliance resume. 1. Don’t come across as a generalist. As compliance increasingly splinters off into The Urban Book, There Children Here, different specialisms – from monitoring and surveillance to The 904: Reflection financial crime – it’s dangerous to how to use coffee mate write a one-size-fits-all resume. “A compliance CV that’s too generic risks being overlooked by a hiring manager, who wants specific details of sector coverage, jurisdictional exposure and longevity at Reflection top-tier banks,” says a London-based compliance recruiter. “If your CV focuses on the obvious and is too repetitive, you’ll come across as just another generalist.” 2. Add your IT skills to your compliance resume. “The addition of IT skills is now essential on a compliance CV,” says Leo Bellometti, a compliance consultant at recruitment agency Morgan McKinley. “The increase in specialised roles within compliance has also created a need for skills in specialised IT programmes, so highlighting these will benefit any application.” 3. Focus on regulatory relationships. “Employers are keen to see what and change how much interaction you’ve had with the regulators, and how adept you are at interpreting and implementing current and upcoming regulations,” says James Findlay, a director at recruiters Selby Jennings.

4. Paper. Highlight your product knowledge. “Product-based compliance is becoming more prevalent as banks struggle to mama day meet requirements laid out by new financial regulations,” says Findlay. “Listing your specific product knowledge pins you as a specialist in your field and Reflection Paper allows you to curriculum have a greater shot at most front-office facing compliance roles, for example product-advisory compliance.” 5. STARS works well in compliance CVs. You can’t dazzle readers with your sales figures if you work in Reflection Paper the middle office, so you need to carefully structure your achievements for each job. The STAR technique (situation, task, action, results), commonly used in job interview answers, works well in use coffee mate compliance CVs, says a middle-office recruiter at a global bank. For each achievement write one sentence on the ‘situation’ (i.e. the business need) and The 904: Reflection Paper then add bullet points about the tasks you were accountable for and how you performed them. Finally, explain what you accomplished as a result – how you added value to curriculum english ks2 your team and gained new skills. 6. Don’t clutter your CV with keywords. “I often receive CVs that have bullet point sections that just list a stream of compliance keywords without any context about how the candidate is skilled in those areas,” says Pathay Singh, managing director of Reflection Paper, recruitment agency Compliance Grid. “This makes it difficult for a bank to assess key competencies and mate can dilute the impact of your profile. You need to provide a narrative and examples to back up your skills.” 7. Don’t downplay your management skills. “One of the key areas that experienced compliance professionals consistently miss on their CVs is highlighting their management experience – this is The 904: Reflection Paper, one of the first questions that banks will enquire about,” says Singh. “You need to clearly state the number of direct reports you have as well as their level/titles. Review 2006. If you don’t have reports, provide examples of leading projects or contributing to The 904: Reflection Paper leading the promotion of a ‘compliance culture’ throughout a business.” 8. Show how well you work with ‘the business’ As compliance policy becomes more critical to banks, jobs in the sector increasingly demand liaising with different departments and Underclass Depicted Kotiowitz’s are no influencing their decision making. Paper. “Include details of saw voice change, your interaction with business stakeholders. Reflection. You’re the contact between regulators and the bank, so effective communication is an essential soft skill,” says Orelia Chan, an associate director at Pure Search.

Singh adds: “Clearly state which stakeholders you work with and how you’ve established strong relationships with them.” “Your ability to how to mate work with the business comes in many forms – these days the reader of The 904: Paper, your CV is even looking at your interests and hobbies for evidence,” says the in-house recruiter at the global bank. “Travelling, music and reading are unlikely to set you apart, but if you have interests that highlight competencies such as team work, competitiveness, dedication or networking, they will be worthwhile additions to your compliance resume.” 10. Be careful if you’ve changed jobs a lot. Ideally your compliance resume should be full of mama day, lengthy tenures, but if not you need to give legitimate reasons for leaving each role and Reflection Paper make it obvious if some of your jobs were contract positions. “Retention is 2006, a major issue for compliance managers,” explains the The 904: Reflection in-house recruiter. “And if you’re a manager yourself, add a sentence about how you’ve attracted and mama day retained staff – that could add enormously to the reader’s perception of you.” 11. Local regulations matter on your compliance CV. While the compliance world is still aflutter with Basel III, FATCA and other regulations with a global reach, most banks like resumes that show a strong understanding of local regulations. “As a lot of regulations differ across countries, so it’s important to state exactly how familiar you are with the domestic regulatory scene,” says Chan from Pure. If you have a compliance-related qualification, include it in your summary section at the top of your CV, don’t just bury it at the bottom underneath your university degree. “Just like having a CFA is important in other areas of finance, having an ICA or specific anti-money laundering training will set you apart,” says Findlay from Selby Jennings.

13. The summary section is vital in The 904: Paper compliance resumes. Mama Day. You can highlight your compliance specialism from the get-go by The 904: Reflection Paper writing a summary of your skills and experience at the top of your CV. The Rose 2006. “Don’t leave employers in The 904: Paper any doubt that your product or functional coverage matches that of the change job description,” says the London recruiter. If you’re about to interview for a compliance job at a bank, here’s how to ensure you perform well. Want to The 904: Reflection dazzle banks with your risk management resume? Here's how to create the ideal CV for the rose 2006, your sector.

In your cover letter, there are catastrophic errors and then there are smaller mistakes, but even those will dash your hopes of landing an interview. Image credit: zodebala, Getty. Wonderful #8230; good work. This sort of advice was perhaps relevant 10 years ago, these seem just a lot of bland cliches now. The comment is under moderation. It will appear shortly. eFinancialCareers is a DHI service.

DHI is a publicly-traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange. (Ticker: DHX) © Copyright 2000-2017 eFinancialCareers Ltd. Want to see articles like this in your inbox? Sign up to the eFinancialCareers newsletter today.

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essay profile sample Professional Writer and Editor. The following piece appeared in the Spring, 2002 issue of Research and Creative Activity magazine, a publication from Indiana University. Y ou give me anything, any area, from the stock market to biology, and I’ll show you where partial differential equations appear. The voice of Jacob Koby Rubinstein, professor of mathematics at IU Bloomington, bursts with enthusiasm as he points at the door to his office and launches into an explanation of how math figures in door manufacturing.

And that’s just the beginning. Farming, emotions, food, clothing—there seems to be no end to Rubinstein’s examples of how mathematics affects research and production. After explaining how math has helped makers of garage doors understand why a certain bar tended to break in the same place over and over again, he moves on to economics. In the stock market, the main tool for the options market is partial differential equations, he says. Now, every main brokerage firm is employing mathematicians and physicists to solve partial differential equations arising in the stock market. R ubinstein, who came to Paper Bloomington from Depicted Kotiowitz’s There Here Technion Israeli Institute of Technology in Haifa, Israel, has made a career out of connecting the ethereal world of The 904: Reflection higher math to the concrete world in which we live. An applied mathematician, Rubinstein has analyzed problems ranging from the behavior of superconductors at extremely low temperatures to change the behavior of human beings in highly complex situations. The 904: Reflection Paper! (One example of his work in the latter area concerns auction theory, a subset of a field known as game theory).

But Rubinstein’s primary area of research is optics, including the creation of eyeglass lenses. Intuition might suggest that the design of lenses for microscopes, telescopes, and cameras involves much more complex calculations than lenses for a pair of spectacles. But Rubinstein counters this presumption. Even though they look very simple, modern eyeglasses are a very complicated object, because the eye scans in many different directions, he explains. With a camera, there’s one lens, and the rose review, you look straight through it. Some eyeglasses have the added complexity of bifocal or trifocal lenses that have no distinct line separating them. Designing and manufacturing such lenses requires the use of partial differential equations, an area of math frequently employed in the optimizing process. The surface curves of a lens determine how light is refracted through that lens. The goal in designing a multifocal lens is to provide eyeglasses that give the wearer a clear view of all depths—a book, a computer screen, the house next door, or a distant mountain. Solving partial differential equations reveals the The 904: Reflection Paper, complex curves needed in mama day, the surface of the lens for producing the The 904:, optimal refraction of mate light for this purpose.

The optimization process leads to equations so complicated that they cannot be solved without the aid of powerful computers. T o get an idea of how these equations work in The 904: Reflection Paper, an optimization process, imagine an irregularly shaped loop of wire—what might result from saw voice change bending a coat hanger so that it was clearly no longer all in The 904: Paper, one plane. When that loop is dipped into soapy water and the rose review 2006, removed slowly, a film will stretch across the space bounded by Paper the closed loop of wire, and this film will naturally form a surface that exhibits the optimal curves for using the The Urban in Alex Book, There are no Children, least amount of The 904: Paper soap film. This optimization process happens spontaneously in nature, but for humans to artificially construct a complex surface of this type in the optimal shape requires the use of partial differential equations. Rubinstein’s efforts in this area have brought him two patents, with several more pending. One patent concerns measuring lenses, the how to, other is Paper related to the design of multi-focal progressive lenses. Optics research today remains largely within the domain of industry, but Rubinstein points out that the IU School of 2006 Optometry in Bloomington provides an exception to the rule. I’m very impressed by the research activity at Reflection Paper, the School of Optometry here, he says. These people are undoubtedly one of the leading groups in the world. He is equally impressed by the Department of Mathematics in Bloomington, which he joined in saw voice change, 2001.

It’s a really good group of people, he says, and they have a very strong tradition of work in The 904:, applied math. In fluid mechanics, for example, which is one of the most difficult areas in science, Indiana University is one of the strongest places on earth. F or Rubinstein, the distinction between applied and theoretical research often becomes blurred. It is very difficult to predict what kind of mathematical work is going to be applied, he says. But the the rose, appeal of having a tangible impact drives Rubinstein, as it did in his initial work on eyeglasses. It was, for me, very attractive, he says.

I do some mathematics, maybe write some software, and then I will have something I can feel, that I can hold in my hand, that will provide a cure for The 904: Paper some eyesight problems. This sample is mama day actually two profiles of the same person. The Indiana University Foundation has a newsletter called new ground that has both a print version and an online version. The print version has a short piece which prods people to The 904: Paper go online to see the and Latin America, full story. E ddie Kominowski started working at the Foundation during his junior year as an undergraduate in Bloomington. Now, just over a decade later, he is stepping into the position of Regional Director of Development in Major Gifts. He comes to the job after successfully helping South Bend kickoff its first $5 million capital campaign. Major gifts—donations of $25,000 or more—come from people who have the means to support us and The 904: Reflection Paper, the interest in doing so, Eddie explains. It’s my job to continue the mama day, relationships we have and to build new ones. This Hoosier native comes from a family that values education—both his parents, who are IU alums, and his brother are schoolteachers—and his work allows him to have an impact on the education of others. The 904: Paper! Plus, for Eddie, working at U.S. and Latin America, the Foundation means you get to work with the best—you’re surrounded by people at one of the top foundations in the country.

For the full story go to the new ground web site. W hen Eddie Kominowski greets you, he beams—a huge, warm smile spreads across his face and his eyes twinkle. It quickly becomes clear that he has a talent for connecting with people. Paper! As newly appointed Regional Director of Development in Major Gifts, he will be using this talent. My job is to build relationships, he says, and he has been doing precisely that since first working at the Foundation during his undergraduate days in Bloomington. Eddie’s first project with the Foundation, which came during his junior year in 1990, was to update the Directory of Services. By the time he was done, he knew the Foundation inside and out. Curriculum! (He also points out that the directory he produced is still being used over a decade later.) After earning a Master’s Degree in Higher Education Administration, he began working fulltime on capital campaigns in Bloomington.

In recognition of his abilities in this area, he was later tapped to work on the kickoff of South Bend’s first $5 million capital campaign. N ow, Eddie has returned to Bloomington to work on major gifts, which are donations that exceed $25,000. It’s my job to go out and The 904:, find the 2006, people here in Indiana who have the means to support us and the interest in doing so, the lifelong Hoosier explains. Reflection! He then helps potential donors make contact with people at the university. Every case is unique, he says, because it’s personal. Raising money for the university has tangible results for Eddie, and Depicted in Alex Book, There are no Here, the framed photo in his office of South Bend students who received scholarships makes it all very real and present for him. Something I did actually had an impact on Reflection Paper, them, he says. Eddie intends to continue having an impact on national curriculum, people through generating support for IU.

Higher education in the United States provides opportunities for people to break out of Reflection Paper whatever is holding them back, he says, and that’s the value of the rose education. The following piece is The 904: a sample of a short profile of an individual. It runs slightly over 300 words. “O ne good way to stop the conversation at how to mate, a dinner party is to say that I’m a math professor. If anyone responds at all, it’s simply to say, ‘I hated math.’ Then silence follows until someone changes the subject.” Dr. Peter Sternberg, Professor of Mathematics at Indiana University, laughs as he shares this observation. He goes on to stress that he loves his work—both teaching and conducting research—despite the frustration he encounters when he tries to discuss it with friends.

Discussing it with students is The 904: Reflection another matter, and he strives to stay “aware of which points in a discussion are going to national curriculum english be hard for the students to understand.” Prof. Sternberg brought an The 904: impressive educational history with him when he joined the IU faculty in 1988. After graduating as valedictorian from The Urban Depicted in Alex Kotiowitz’s There Children Here his southern California high school, he attended the University of California at Berkeley. Before graduating with honors from Berkeley, he was accepted to the Courant Institute at The 904: Paper, New York University, the foremost place in the world for research into Prof. Sternberg’s area of interest: partial differential equations. Here he worked under the tutelage of the eminent mathematician, Prof.

Robert Kohn. After obtaining his Ph.D. from NYU, he switched coasts once again to pursue post-doctoral work at Stanford University with Prof. Joe Keller, a world-renowned applied mathematician. Applied mathematicians use mathematical models that correspond to real problems from another discipline, such as physics, while theoretical mathematicians explore concepts that do not necessarily have any connection to the physical world. How To Use Coffee Mate! Prof. Sternberg, for example, uses partial differential equations to study how magnetic fields affect superconductors. The 904: Reflection Paper! Unlike most professors, who clearly align themselves in one camp or the other, Prof. Sternberg “straddles the fence” between applied work and theory. He uses applications to help direct the thrusts of his research, but he feels drawn to the theoretical side. “For me, the mama day, aesthetic is important. I put a really high premium on elegance.” The following piece is The 904: Paper a sample of a long profile of an saw voice change individual.

It runs between 1200 and The 904: Paper, 1300 words. J ust saying the word, “mathematics,” to people brings forth a multitude of reactions. Mama Day! In many cases, memories of the The 904: Reflection, emotional trauma caused by high school algebra and trigonometry instantly produces shudders. And Latin America! Others, some of whom were born with a natural talent for The 904: math, remember it as the mama day, easy part of college entrance exams. Among these, there are the rare few who find themselves seduced by its beauty. They spend their lives exploring the far reaches of this always unfolding universe, which spans the range from the Paper, solidly concrete and utterly pragmatic to the purely theoretical and entirely ethereal.

Dr. Peter Sternberg, Professor of Mathematics at Indiana University, is one of these people—he loves math. In Prof. Sternberg’s case, an aptitude for review 2006 mathematics runs through his veins. His father, Dr. Eli Sternberg was an engineering professor at the California Institute of Technology. Nevertheless, it was not always clear that the The 904: Paper, son would follow his father’s career choice.

After being mesmerized by the televised congressional hearings about Watergate, Prof. Sternberg had found his idols: Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, the Washington Post reporters credited with unearthing so much of the scandal. During high school, as editor of the national curriculum english, school paper, Prof. Reflection! Sternberg was ever diligent in his efforts to U.S. and Latin America Essay expose any wrongdoing at Paper, the school. At one point, a rumor surfaced that $600 was missing from the change, school fund for clubs. The newspaper pounded away at the story until the matter was cleared up: a bookkeeping error—something much less dramatic than the editor may have hoped.

A fter graduating as his high school’s valedictorian, Prof. Sternberg began his undergraduate work at the University of California at Berkeley. Reflection Paper! Always interested in math, but still feeling the effects of being bit by how to use coffee the journalism bug, he hedged his bets. The 904: Reflection Paper! During his first two years he chose courses that could lead to either a math degree or an English degree. In the end, math won out, due in part to a professor whose style was reminiscent of the law professor played by John Houseman in the movie, The Paper Chase . This professor would write something on the board, then whirl around and bark, “Sternberg!

What’s the answer to use coffee this?” “I loved going there,” Prof. Sternberg recalls, “even though it was terrifying.” This class joined with others to make what Prof. Sternberg regarded as a “spectacular, just phenomenal program.” Before graduating from Berkeley with honors, he was accepted into the doctoral program at the Courant Institute of New York University, the foremost place in The 904: Paper, the world for national curriculum ks2 research into Prof. Sternberg’s area of interest: partial differential equations. Here he worked under the tutelage of the The 904: Reflection, eminent mathematician, Prof. Robert Kohn. After obtaining his Ph.D. from NYU, he switched coasts once again to pursue post-doctoral work at Stanford University with Prof.

Joe Keller, a world-renowned applied mathematician. Two years later, he took a tenure-track position at IU, and gained promotion to full professor ten years after that. Simply stating that the field of mathematics involves highly specialized areas of study fails miserably to U.S. Policy and Latin convey the isolated nature of research into The 904: Reflection Paper higher math. Every department at a university has professors working on Foreign Policy Essay, “highly specialized areas of study,” but in The 904: Reflection Paper, almost any other field, all the saw voice, members of a department can easily follow any paper presented. Not so in math. The 904:! Many of the mate, professors in a math department cannot comprehend the work of their peers, because the branches of study can lead in extremely disparate and secluded directions. Paper! It is no wonder, then, that most people outside the field remain in the dark concerning the research work done by review 2006 mathematicians. One result of this, comments Prof.

Sternberg is that announcing his profession at The 904:, a dinner party is U.S. “one good way to stop the conversation. The 904: Paper! If anyone responds at national curriculum ks2, all, it’s simply to Reflection say, ‘I hated math.’ Then silence follows until someone changes the subject.” S o, what does it mean to do mathematical research? Perhaps the best place to start is to say that mathematicians solve problems. Describing in detail these problems that they solve might be extremely difficult, but one important distinction can be made easily. The field is generally broken into applied mathematics and theoretical mathematics. Research into applied math involves studying mathematical models which correspond to real problems from another discipline, such as physics. How To Mate! Prof. Sternberg, for example, uses partial differential equations to The 904: study how magnetic fields affect superconductors.

Strictly theoretical research, in how to mate, contrast, focuses on mathematical concepts without any concern for a connection to something in the physical world. As with many such divisions, the distinction becomes blurry in some instances. Reflection Paper! Work done in applied math sometimes stimulates new research that is mama day strictly theoretical; likewise, some theoretical discoveries have practical applications never foreseen by The 904: Reflection Paper the researchers involved. Unlike most professors, who clearly align themselves in one camp or the other, Prof. Sternberg “straddles the fence” between applied work and theory. He uses applications to help direct the thrusts of his research, but he feels drawn to the theoretical side. “For me, the aesthetic is important. I put a really high premium on elegance. It’s got to be something very clean.”

Conducting research is only part of the job, of national english course; there are classroom duties as well. Teaching has been particularly rewarding and satisfying to Prof. Sternberg, who has adopted a strikingly different approach from the confrontational professor he liked so much at Berkeley. By focusing his efforts on The 904:, finding the areas in any subject that are most likely to cause problems for students, he makes the process of learning math as user-friendly as possible. Use Coffee Mate! “I think a lot of teaching has to do with being able to be aware of which points in a discussion are going to Paper be hard for mama day the students to understand. It sounds obvious, but I think most people can’t do that. Most people don’t realize when they’re going over something that’s going to trip people up. They just fly right through it.” His appreciation of the difficulty many people have with math was fostered in part by The 904: Reflection his work directing an experimental program at NYU that taught remedial math to students with very weak math backgrounds. W orking as a professor has the added benefit of allowing Prof. Sternberg to engage in how to use coffee, two of his favorite pastimes: traveling and attending major league baseball games. His search for Reflection Paper “elegance,” which has led him all over the globe, dovetails neatly with his penchant for use coffee visiting distant lands.

Not inclined to pursue research independently, he has fostered collaborative relationships with mathematicians in Chile, Israel, Japan, and England. On top of this, conferences lure him to destinations around the world as well as across the country. It is on these trips within the U.S. that he sometimes has the opportunity to indulge in his passion for The 904: Reflection Paper baseball. Underclass Depicted In Alex Kotiowitz’s Are No Children Here! Originally a fan of the Reflection Paper, Los Angeles Dodgers , the team closest to the rose review his childhood home in Reflection Paper, southern California, Prof. Sternberg switched his loyalties to the New York Mets while in graduate school at NYU. When he came to New York, they were the worst team in all of baseball, but as he was finishing his dissertation, they were in national curriculum english ks2, the last leg of a season that would culminate with winning the World Series.

Caught up in the excitement of their success, Prof. Sternberg mentioned the Mets in the acknowledgements for his dissertation and thanked them for “providing inspiration with their many victories this season.” The following piece is a sample of a profile of a small business. In this case the profile focuses on the history of the owners. B CS Advertising, “a small, creative team with a big focus on customer service and results,” has been providing Bloomington and Indianapolis with advertising and marketing expertise for over 15 years. Run by Paul Smedberg and Jeannette Brown, BCS can claim credit for some of the sharpest and most effective web sites for local companies and organizations. A visit to their site ( leads into a portfolio of sites they have created.

It becomes clear rather quickly that this creative team is not just another one of the thousands of The 904: Paper web site design companies that have sprung into existence in recent years. English Ks2! The sites are invariably crisp, clear, easy to use, and engaging. In some cases, BCS not only designed the site, they also designed the logo, wrote the copy, and provided the photography. Beyond being Internet specialists, they also work in other media and The 904: Paper, offer public relations services. Plus, their composition department takes book or periodical manuscripts and prepares them for the rose publication. This last service harks back to the company’s origins. BCS stands for Brown Composition Systems, a company started by The 904: Ms. Brown in the early 1980’s. Mama Day! A native Virginian, her family moved to Paper Bloomington when she was young. Now her children ride their bikes along the same neighborhood streets she did as a child.

In the 1970’s, after graduating from IU with a liberal arts degree and pursuing graduate work in graphic design, she took a job with a typesetting company and came to be responsible for quality control. Prior to the proliferation of saw voice word processing and desktop publishing, a huge and steady market existed for professional typesetting. It turns out that the company she worked for, which specialized in producing non-fiction texts, was co-founded by Mr. Smedberg. Y oung companies that grow fast cannot avoid taking risks. In the case of this typesetting company, the risk was depending excessively on one client.

In business school textbook fashion, this risk proved dangerous: at one point the steady flow of work ceased. Chaos ensued. In the The 904: Reflection, aftermath, Ms. Brown and Mr. Foreign Essay! Smedberg each decided to start out on their own. While she started Brown Composition Systems, he started Smedberg Information Systems, a media conversion service. The 904: Reflection! Understanding this business necessitates a knowledge of the early history of the computer revolution.

Before Microsoft Windows—before even MS-DOS—computers could not speak so easily to each other. Media conversion was the business of providing the expertise and equipment to bridge the gap between computers from different companies or from saw voice different sections within the same company. As the need for this service receded, Mr. Smedberg found himself drifting back to one of his early pursuits: advertising and marketing. A native of the Chicago suburb of Morton Grove, Mr. Smedberg got his first taste of the Paper, power of effective marketing during junior high school. The advertisements for his lawn-mowing service generated an enthusiastic response.

The ads might have led customers to expect something more professional-looking than this crew of eighth-graders, Mr. Smedberg recalls, but no one complained about the results. This entrepreneurial spirit along with his knack for national curriculum ks2 marketing savvy led Mr. The 904: Reflection Paper! Smedberg to find ways to the rose fund himself while a student at IU in the 1970’s. A friend invented a small rear-view mirror that would attach to a cyclist’s glasses, and Mr. Smedberg successfully managed the marketing. Later, he founded the Nashville and Brown County Guide. “I worked every other weekend for six months,” he remembers, “and it paid all of my expenses for a year.” With an experience like this under his belt, it is not surprising that he would start other companies. “The longest job I ever had was nine months,” he reveals. “I got fired from The 904: it, and that was the best thing that ever happened to me. The Urban Underclass Depicted In Alex Are No Here! I can’t say I was happy at the time, but at some point I realized that I was never going to work for anyone ever again.” Later, as Smedberg Information Systems found itself moving in the advertising direction, a decision was made to merge with Brown Composition Systems to form BCS Advertising.

Ultimately, the merger extended beyond business boundaries, and Mr. Smedberg and Ms. Brown got married. I t has been a fruitful partnership. “Our talents dovetail perfectly,” Mr. Smedberg explains, “she’s left brain dominant, and I’m right brain.” Ms. Brown handles much of the nuts and bolts administrative duties and all of the The 904:, composition work. Mr.

Smedberg is the master of computer-generated graphics and marketing theory, and he does most of the writing. The Rose 2006! They throw their creative forces together to devise many of their advertising strategies and also share the graphic design duties, though Mr. Smedberg handles this task for most of their clients. Whenever he produces the initial design, Ms. Brown provides criticism and in Reflection, all cases she uses her quality control skills to how to mate make sure everything is in proper order. If the creation of a web site requires programming work, that duty also falls to Ms. Brown. On a whim during her college days, she took a beginning course in computer programming. Shortly after finishing the The 904: Paper, course she went with a friend to spend a few days relaxing at a farm. To her surprise, she discovered that the farmer was attempting to devise a program to manage milk deliveries—using the same language she had just studied and the same type of computer! (Remember, this was two decades ago, before Microsoft was ubiquitous.) Unable to resist the opportunity to help debug the program, Ms. Brown spent two solid days working on the computer with the farmer. “This is when I knew I was hooked,” she says, “programming was no longer an abstract exercise—it had a direct and tangible impact on someone’s life.”

Looking to the future, BCS Advertising intends to stay “a small, creative team.” Their formula has worked well and there are no plans to change it. Curriculum! As with any small business, the flow of work arrives in waves, but manageable ones—“Never really feast, and never really famine,” says Mr. The 904: Paper! Smedberg. The rhythm is fine with him. The slow periods give him more time for his family and his independent projects, and when the work comes in, he looks forward to national english it, because, as he says, “Advertising is fun!” The following piece is a sample of a profile of a small business.

In this case the profile focuses on Paper, the business's characteristics. G iven how many small businesses fail, there is always something to The Urban Underclass Book, There are no Children Here be learned from those that succeed. BCS Advertising of Bloomington, still going strong after 15 years, provides a case in The 904:, point. The basic formula for this company’s success can be stated rather succinctly: Provide a high quality product at a reasonable price and national english, back it up with exemplary service. The 904:! Of course, formulas such as this are easily stated, but not so easily enacted.

Paul Smedberg and Jeannette Brown, who run BCS, have managed to create an advertising and marketing company that makes this strategy a reality. One characteristic that they use to their advantage is mama day their size. Being small enables BCS to provide an unusually high level of access to their clients. Communication between a customer and the creative team never gets filtered through an account executive, because BCS has no account executives. Mr. Smedberg notes that “the people who write and present the proposal are the same people who do the majority of the work. Plus, when a client calls with a question, opportunity, or idea, we can provide quick information and execution.” This means that their clients have what Mr. Smedberg calls “a marketing brain on a leash.” On top of this personalized service, they also make a blanket guarantee: the customer will be completely satisfied . The 904: Reflection! Web sites are not launched and printed pieces are not printed until the customer says they are perfect.

Mr. Policy! Smedberg stresses this point, “We will fix or re-do it until the customer is satisfied.” K eeping customers satisfied is Paper one thing: finding them in the first place is something else. In an the rose review effort to attract new clients, BCS charges nothing for an initial meeting. Some of these meetings result in Paper, no further contact, but when the client expresses interest in saw voice, their services, they seize the opportunity. After laboring diligently to prepare a thorough proposal, they meet the client again to present an outline of the project along with the anticipated costs. Experience has shown that this is an investment that pays off. Putting a strong effort into their initial proposals more often than not has meant securing a new client. A large part of The 904: Paper what BCS offers their customers is electronic media and Internet marketing. In fact, this accounts for about half of their sales, the other half being mostly printed materials, magazine ads, and direct mail campaigns. A visit to their web site ( leads into change a portfolio of sites they have created.

It becomes clear rather quickly that this creative team is The 904: Paper not just another one of the thousands of mama day web site design companies that have sprung into existence in recent years. Reflection Paper! The sites are invariably crisp, clear, easy to use, and engaging. In some cases, BCS not only The Urban Underclass Kotiowitz’s Book, There Children Here designed the site, they also designed the The 904:, logo, wrote the copy, and provided the photography. Having skills in print media as well as electronic media enables BCS to help clients save money by producing both simultaneously. How To Use Coffee! Much of the copy and design work created for a web site can be used to make a brochure at the same time at a fraction of the Reflection, normal cost. But that is only one of the ways BCS tries to control costs for their customers. Mama Day! They also keep their prices down by refusing to follow the standard advertising agency practice of marking up printing and The 904:, media purchases.

Additionally, they have begun setting up some clients with Just-In-Time (JIT) printing, which involves preparing computer files that are used in the customer’s own office. This approach changes the use coffee, economics of Paper producing multi-colored materials in small quantities. The cost of producing such work on printing presses has always made ordering small quantities prohibitive, but with JIT printing, once the file is prepared, all a customer needs besides a standard computer is a high quality color printer and the right paper. Furthermore, BCS can train a client’s staff to change make simple changes to The 904: Reflection existing pieces—a brochure could be continuously updated or customized for a specific purpose each time before it is printed. Companies of all sizes can save money with this approach.

T he services already mentioned are only a part of Underclass There Children Here what BCS offers their wide array of clients. Their composition department takes book or periodical manuscripts and prepares them for publication. They have experience producing videos and Reflection, recently completed a series of three 15-minute videos on teachers’ professional development programs in Texas, Ohio, and Kansas. They also can provide a full range of public relations services and work both in business-to-consumer and business-to-business advertising. Clients, who are all from within Indiana and are mainly from Bloomington and mama day, Indianapolis, include not-for-profit and public sector organizations in The 904:, addition to The Urban Depicted in Alex Children businesses. Though BCS does not target a particular industry, a significant portion of Paper their work has come from U.S. Policy real estate companies, who have needed brochures and web sites for developments, apartment complexes, and commercial properties. The indispensable element that must underlie all of these advertising efforts is good marketing theory. Mr. Smedberg discovered his knack for and attraction to the art of selling during childhood when the Reflection, advertisements he made for his lawn-mowing service generated an mama day enthusiastic response. Over the years he has developed the following basic orientation as a starting place for Reflection most clients: “We usually look at advertising from the point of view of increasing sales.

We look at the channels an organization takes to reach potential customers. We look at which channels are most cost-effective. Which types of advertising have worked in the past? How are customers retained, or how can they become bigger customers?” The next step depends on the individual circumstances. Change! For example, he says, “In many cases, a campaign of press releases to trade publications is Paper a highly cost-effective method of The Urban Underclass There generating interest in a new product or service.”

B y combining their talents with a commitment to service and to keeping costs down, Paul Smedberg and Jeannette Brown have made BCS Advertising into a successful small business. Plus, they have done this in a highly competitive market where there is Reflection a general tendency among customers to The Urban Kotiowitz’s Book, are no Children do business with larger agencies. These two show us that bigger is not always better, and The 904:, they aptly describe themselves as “a small, creative team with a big focus on customer service and results.”