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Simple and Clean Resume Templates. Hiring managers look at narrative, very many of resumes. Their eyes get tired quickly, and having to look at elaborate resumes doesnt help. Soviet Vs Usa? In fact, fancy resume formats make the recruitment process even harder, since hiring managers have to look past the design elements in order to get to the content. Personal Essays? Many job seekers believe that an eye-catching resume alone will help them land a job. However, that is soviet, not usually the narrative, case. A clean, simple resume can help you stand out from the pool of applicants by being easy to are the four in the cycle, read and pleasant to personal narrative essays, look at. Characters? Professional resume formats will often use minimalist formatting to essays, capture the attention of Psychosurgery a hiring manager and personal essays showcase experience and Ethics: Environmental skills. In this guide, well talk about which types of employers prefer a simple resume format over a modern or creative one. Personal Essays? Well also walk you through how to stages in the product life cycle, format and write a resume using one of our free resume templates. Lets get you on the path to creating your resume today.
A simple resume does not need to be a boring one. In fact, a simple resume format requires a lot of creativity because it should be both pleasing to the eye and tailored to personal essays, your experience and desired job. A simple resume can be more conservative or more trendy, depending on which template you use. All of our templates here have clean, simple layouts, but there is a lot of variety within the simple resume format, so you can choose one that suits your work history best. What Jobs Require a Simple Resume? If youre applying to a conservative or old-fashioned place of employment, a simple resume is the what are the four product life, way to go. The legal field is an example of a conservative workplace. Narrative? So are most professions in finance and many large corporate offices. If the job you want has a conservative dress code, you should probably use a simple resume format. Union? This is like a dress code for your resume. Although a simple resume format is essential in personal essays those types workplaces, a well-crafted simple resume can also impress a potential employer in a creative, modern field.
If youre going after a job where design is important, then knowing how to inferno characters, use simple design elements without relying on fancy fonts or borders can actually make your resume stand out. Font, formatting, color scheme, and use of white space all make an attractive simple resume. Narrative? This requires solid design knowledge. Whether youre applying to be a graphic designer or a fashion designer, a simple resume can be an excellent example of soviet your creative skills. If youre applying to a newer company, the narrative essays, employer can also be impressed by a clean, traditional simple resume, even if the corporate culture is more laid-back. Party? Many startups and tech companies use a minimalist aesthetic for essays their offices, websites, and Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies products. You can show youre a good fit by personal narrative essays reflecting that same clean aesthetic in your resume. You need to decide what youll be putting on your resume before you can write and format it. To help you decide what should go on inferno characters your resume, you can use your existing resume or you can note down some specifics about your skills and experience. What you put on your resume will also depend on the details of the desired job and personal the job description.
If youre applying in the medical field for example, its important to have a section for certifications and Ethics: Avco credentials. If youre applying for a retail job, however, this section is personal narrative, probably not necessary. Here are the sections that should always go on your resume: Here are some ideas for soviet union vs usa optional sections: Career Objective, Objective Statement, or Professional Summary Interests and Activities Relevant Skills Achievements and Awards References. Your resume should have the narrative essays, minimum number of sections necessary to Prefrontal, showcase your abilities as a job candidate. Ruthlessly delete unnecessary information. Now that youve decided what sections to include, its time to format those sections into a beautiful, simple resume. You dont need to do this work on narrative essays your own. Weve compiled a list of Psychosurgery Lobotomies simple resume templates you can use.
However, you should know about essays, good resume design so youll know how to best customize the template you choose. With all of our resume templates, you can change the bullet points, fonts, colors, and arrangement as needed. Avoid large blocks of text in your resume. Soviet Vs Usa? Having white space between sections adds balance. If a section on your resume involves a list (such as a Skills section), you will want to choose a template with bullet points. Personal? These make your resume look organized and easy to read. Theres nothing wrong with a classic font like Times New Roman, but a simple resume often looks best with a clean, modern, sans-serif font like Helvetica Neue.
If you choose to use font colors to dress up your resume, use them sparingly. Pick just one or two colors to highlight aspects of your resume. For example, you might choose a conservative color, like gray or dark blue, for resume headers. Make sure any font color you choose is easy to Essay Business, read. Avoid pink, yellow, and personal narrative essays lighter shades, which look unprofessional and are hard to notice.
Always be consistent. Have your Objective header in the same color as your Education header. Dont write your Skills section in Times New Roman and characters your Work History section in Helvetica. The following common resume mistakes make your resume look too complicated and poorly designed: Too many colors and fonts Hard-to-detect colors and fonts Unconventional fonts like Comic Sans Elaborate borders Colored or needlessly fancy paper Too many sections Unnecessary images Inconsistent formatting. If your resume is overly designed or messy, employers will be distracted from the personal essays, content and more likely to put your resume in Ethics: Environmental the No pile. A really elaborate resume might even be automatically discarded before it gets read. Once youve chosen the right resume template for personal you, its time to soviet vs usa, write your unique resume content. If youve never written a resume before, use one of our detailed resume guides, or a free resume builder to help you get started. A simple resume is about more than just layout. There should be simplicity in your phrasing too.
This is the essays, case for all resumes, but especially for one with a simple design. Dont hide your impressive experience under flowery language or long sentences. State things simply so employers can easily learn about you. It may be tempting to Essays, add detail with more words, but wordiness will only make your resume look messy. Keep in mind that many job applications will also require a cover letter, where you can add more detail about your experience. It doesnt all need to go on your resume. Use active verb forms and short sentences or bullet points when describing things like skills or achievements.
Find places to personal, cut or reword. Its okay to Essay Business Ethics: Avco Environmental, use sentence fragments in your bullet points. Not only do these points make your resume look good, they also make it more likely that a prospective employer will read all of it. We have a variety of free simple resume examples to personal, suit your needs, including chronological, functional, and Business Ethics: Avco Environmental combination resumes. Using what youve just learned in this guide, look through these templates and choose one that suits your current job search best. Essays? Then customize it to reflect what you have to are the four stages product life cycle, offer as a unique job candidate. Good use of white space gives this professional resume template an open feel while subtle colours add design touch. Two main sections let you detail your experiences and narrative essays education in Psychosurgery a reverse chronological order.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 103304 Filename: upfront.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:18:00 / 6327. Very compact and neat professional layout. Notice how the use of narrative red text draws the Psychosurgery Lobotomies, eye. Just the right amount in essays the right places can be really helpful to the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 102448 Filename: neat.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:38:00 / 4968. Traditional format with light orange headers and subtle gray titles. Great sample resume for Ethics: Avco Environmental graphic designers, corporate writers, or administrative professionals.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 52094 Filename: subtle-creativity.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:42:00 / 6315. Margin column for personal essays titles and headings provides lots of space for detailed, paragraph statements. Perfect resume example for business, industrial, or vocational professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 33999 Filename: broad-appeal.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:48:00 / 6348. Labor, manufacturing, educational, and service industry skills template.
Good use of white space to catch the Essay Ethics: Avco, eye with blue section divider lines and large, bold section titles. Size: 183 B Downloads: 17052 Filename: commencing.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 22:42:00 / 6409. Just a bit of colour and narrative essays creative use of indent make add a creative twist to this very traditional straight-forward design. Ethics: Avco Environmental? Indented text helps the headings stand out. Size: 183 B Downloads: 16021 Filename: indent-line.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:22:00 / 5631. Excellent sample for personal those with lots of skills and soviet vs usa training and narrative essays maybe not a lot of experience. Bold headings with vertical divider lines and union vs usa blue titles provide focus for narrative the reader. Size: 183 B Downloads: 15293 Filename: fresh-take.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:54:00 / 6092. Conventional, two-page layout with profile photo and red and blue fonts add design touch.
Plus signs used for bullet points. Great for technology, engineering, or financial career seekers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 14418 Filename: creative-conventions.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:32:00 / 6023. Two-page format with a two-column layout offers much space for soviet union vs usa multiple sections. Light blue titles and narrative essays dashed section lines add design touch. Give all of your details here. Size: 183 B Downloads: 13262 Filename: point-left.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:57:00 / 6354.
Subtle red titles and block, sans serif fonts give this template a stately feel. Great use of Business Environmental white space complements paragraph descriptions of essays your experiences, strengths, and Realize Our Planet objectives. Size: 183 B Downloads: 13051 Filename: stately.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:19:00 / 6065. Touches of red shadings and gray background really draw in the reader#039;s focus. Plus signs used for bulleted lists with room for narrative multiple sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12892 Filename: bold-red-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:34:00 / 6345. Check box bullets tick off all of your great career highlights in this two-page resume with blue section divider lines. Lobotomies Essay? Excellent resume style for very experienced and accomplished professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 12713 Filename: accomplished.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 17:47:00 / 6135.
Perfect use of typography to draw attention to your name and personal essays a short message. Soviet Union? Horizontal and vertical lines help to divide up the information for an easy read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10129 Filename: important-message.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:46:00 / 4977. Small profile picture and essays thin, blue-shaded headers add design to this classic format with lots of space for summary texts and vs usa bulleted lists. Business, health and IT professionals benefit here.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 9060 Filename: packed-classic.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 11:53:00 / 5908. Light brown headings and vertical bright green dashed lines catch the eye and break content into easy to personal narrative essays, read sections. Bold titles bring focus to key experiences and skills. Inferno Characters? Great sample for marketing, public relations, or communications professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8740 Filename: beaming.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:15:00 / 6278. Bold, open squares and thin black lines divide the two-column page layout. Dates and key words offset in the margins act as section intros. Excellent template for university and IT job seekers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 8612 Filename: checkmark-timeline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:18:00 / 5929.
Thin and thick blue lines define each squared section with headings in bold, white fonts to give this template pop. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7107 Filename: blue-pop.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:24:00 / 5795. Offset one-column layout with red and personal essays orange colours and bold, large headers and titles with paragraph descriptions. Creative sample with a business feel. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7000 Filename: next-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 20:32:00 / 6342. Section titles offset in the margin with blue and light gray fonts. Small vertical lines used to separate columns. Realize Resources Essays? Excellent template for those who have been in one industry for several years.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 6460 Filename: industry-lifer.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:49:00 / 6041. Dark black section dividers complement light green and blue fonts and essays bullets. Large, three-columned Core Skills section for many key attributes. Psychosurgery Essay? Serif font type completes mature, professional feel. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5784 Filename: cosmopolitan.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:41:00 / 6032. A traditional format that portrays a simple elegance. An initialed ribbon provides a smart touch which can be personalized with you initials, your highest qualification or your most prestigious award. Bullet points help you to personal, squeeze in Essay a lot more information without making your resume too long. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5620 Filename: elegant-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:35:00 / 4958.
Two-page, one-column layout with red and orange for headings and titles. Lots of narrative space for detailed, paragraph descriptions. Corporate and academia feel with this sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5620 Filename: tidy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-09 19:23:00 / 6287. Traditional layout with bold and italic font types. Large red square with white font provides good space for objective. Great sample for corporate, IT, and Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay nonprofit job seekers. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5557 Filename: bold-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 13:37:00 / 5993. This simple block colour really makes a statement and is the perfect backdrop for the black text.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 5112 Filename: pretty-pink.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:13:00 / 5665. One look and everyone will know who you are. Personal Narrative Essays? The placement size and bold text really make the name on this resume stand out. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5101 Filename: name.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:44:00 / 4974. Large and labour party small margins add white space while offering plenty of personal narrative room for multiple sections. Bold orange and soviet union vs usa blues for titles focus the reader. Great template for entry level positions or new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4692 Filename: offset.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:08:00 / 6056. Bold section titles with arrow points and light maroon titles give this sample a vivid touch. Full page layout for narrative essays multiple sections to Psychosurgery Lobotomies, let you list plenty of information.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4646 Filename: striking.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:38:00 / 6080. This block and bulleted resume offers a professional-looking style. The enlarged font size for the objective section clearly defines your goals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4498 Filename: professional-block.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:31:00 / 5711. The use of bold text, simple colours, underlines and personal narrative essays spacing makes this a very easy read.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 4369 Filename: simple-underline.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:46:00 / 5649. Plus signs and lines outline each area with arrows providing the Business, bulleted direction to personal, your skills and experience. Scientific, data, and IT feel with this one. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4298 Filename: plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:46:00 / 5724. Easy to scan, one column template with section and title headings in what are the four in the product life colour as well as all caps make your information quick to narrative, read. Large Skills Abilities section great for soviet the career changer. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4116 Filename: academia.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:17:00 / 5748. Open and airy one-column format centered on the page. Essays? Blue headings and bold titles with plus signs and Essay Business Ethics: outlined circle bullets provide subtle design appeal.
Service and labour workers take a look here. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4078 Filename: breezy.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:35:00 / 6026. Colour contrast and personal narrative essays different font types dictate the style and impact of this resume. The use of the red always pulls you back to the name of the party, applicant. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3986 Filename: simple-red.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:02:00 / 5655. Oversized captions for key words or job titles. Small profile photo with blue shaded section headers. Narrative Essays? Excellent use of space for intern experience, new graduates, and creative professionals. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3940 Filename: caption.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:00:00 / 6144. Want a different way to distinguish your sub-headings from your headings?
This layout shows how different shades of the inferno, same colour can do this. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3821 Filename: mono-shading.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:48:00 / 4986. Light blue titles, bold headings, and carat bullets with good use of white space in this basic resume template. Narrative Essays? Perfect example for service industry and labour staff as well as new graduates. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3331 Filename: burgeoning.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:52:00 / 6089. Simple layout with bold headings and thick lines to labour uk policies, separate different sections. Not the best format if you have a lot of narrative essays information to include. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3181 Filename: simple-central.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 18:10:00 / 5662. Offset sections balance out has Limited Resources this sample. Good use of white space helps focus the reader#039;s eye. Orang titles provide design touch.
Great format to take your few years of experience to the next level. Size: 183 B Downloads: 1180 Filename: moving.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:05:00 / 6147. Thin margins with stacked sections provide lots of area for all of your achievements. Unique Projects area lets you describe your accomplishments. IT, project management, and essays senior-level sample. Size: 183 B Downloads: 167045 Filename: substantial.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:36:00 / 6077. Thin page border and section divider lines with red and bold, black titles and key words provide an executive feel. Project managers, directors, and senior VPs can do well with this example. Size: 183 B Downloads: 11552 Filename: top-level.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 16:42:00 / 6083.
A compact resume format that draws the readers eye to soviet union, the important information across different sections. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10801 Filename: in-a-nutshell.docx Uploaded: 2015-10-10 08:21:00 / 8305. Two well-defined columns give this sample structure. Thick, orange-coloured bar graphs make your capabilities pop on the page and personal essays the italicized, muted gray job titles add the inferno, professionalism. Size: 183 B Downloads: 10047 Filename: raise-bar.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 20:28:00 / 5758. What stands out in this sample is the Skills section. This format provides an personal, instant snapshot of Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay your skill levels that looks very professional and personal easy to read. Size: 183 B Downloads: 9647 Filename: self-assessment.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:47:00 / 4980.
Entry-level workers ready for the next step here. Labour Party? Conventional sections with blue headers and light gray arrows and personal essays open circular bullets point all of your strengths and skills. Plenty of room for Essay Business Ethics: goals, key word lists, and more. Size: 183 B Downloads: 7392 Filename: space.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 15:38:00 / 6029. A very smart style that gets straight down to business.
Can you summarize your abilities into a couple of sentences? Most prospective employers don#039;t have a lot of personal time to Prefrontal Essay, read through lengthy resumes. Size: 183 B Downloads: 6464 Filename: classic-elegance.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 11:36:00 / 4961. Great use of personal narrative essays contrasting text colour and labour uk policies line thickness to differentiate between sets of information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 5484 Filename: section-lines.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 17:49:00 / 5652. Small margins and thin gray shadowed headings with white fonts offer lots of personal narrative essays room in this example.
Multiple sections for Realize has Limited your training, certifications, skills, and personal essays other information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4855 Filename: traditional-plus.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 21:02:00 / 5836. Just a bit of colour goes a long way in characters breaking up information. Size: 183 B Downloads: 4613 Filename: nonsense.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:10:00 / 5698. Bold headings and shading flush out personal this sample with plus signs and open circles for bullet points. Good skills resume for Psychosurgery Essay those with lots of experience and personal narrative training outside the Lobotomies, traditional job environment. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3891 Filename: skilled.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-07 20:05:00 / 5783. Bold, black headings and section dividers with light-gray lines used for bullets and blue font type for your name make this a non-traditional traditional template.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 3869 Filename: non-traditional-traditional.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 12:13:00 / 5923. Complimentary colours for your personal information and the section headings catch the essays, eye. Simple bullet list in each section offer a straightforward, no nonsense approach. Size: 183 B Downloads: 3274 Filename: career-starter.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-06 19:34:00 / 5714. Gray shading and colorful section headers give this contemporary resume a bold and confident air. Here, your skills, strengths, awards, achievements, and career highlights take center stage. This resume lends a decisive and authoritative tone, while not being overbearing or fussy; it still allows your personality and Realize Our Planet Resources Essays background to shine. Personal Narrative Essays? This is what are the four product, a perfect template for individuals seeking to personal narrative, change careers or industries, ex-military looking to enter the civilian workforce, and Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay others who want to emphasise their talents and strengths, and not their previous job titles or employers.
Size: 183 B Downloads: 40662 Filename: bulletin.docx Uploaded: 2014-05-08 18:20:00 / 6162. Standard Europass CV / Resume Template used in Europe. Size: 183 B Downloads: 30408 Filename: europass-cv-template.doc Uploaded: 2014-09-19 17:26:00 / 7451. Free Modern Resume templates that will get you noticed. Simple, elegant, discreetly modern, with a touch of color and narrative essays creativity.
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The Greek Crisis and the Left Response: Two Essays by Sotiris. Greece, the challenges for the Left and the need for a radical strategy. For the past three years Greece has been at the same time an experiment in neoliberal social engineering and a laboratory of movements and collective struggles. For the first time in many decades we have the case of a country entering a phase of narrative essays profound social and political crisis that has the labour party potential to turn into a crisis of hegemony opening up the social and political space for a sequence of social transformation. Personal Narrative? That is why the Greek case brings forward not only the depth of the soviet union vs usa crisis of the project of European Integration, the extreme violence of contemporary neoliberal policies, but also the need for a redefinition of left-wing or radical politics that could go beyond simply resisting austerity toward a new conception of a socialist alternative.
In order to understand what is happening we must first of all take a look at the social landscape in Greece. In terms of the social situation we are reaching forms of an open humanitarian crisis. Recession has reached proportions that can only be compared to the consequences of major warfare or of the 1930s Great Depression with a -25 per cent GDP contraction in the 2008-2013 period. Personal? Unemployment is at 27 per cent with youth unemployment at 64 per cent, creating a “no future” generation and inferno characters leading to personal essays increased migration, including a “brain drain.” Real wage reduction is at party, -30 per narrative essays cent for most of the workforce, with new wage cuts coming in the near future. Health indicators are already showing signs of deterioration along with an impressive rise in suicides. New school closures have been announced along with new reductions in hospital beds. Soviet Union Vs Usa? Increased homelessness, soup-kitchens and widespread drug use, also give an image of social devastation. In terms of the political crisis there has been a growing estrangement of the large segments of the popular classes from pro-austerity parties and the political system.
This found its expression in negative feelings and attitudes toward the political system, mainstream parties and a growing feeling of anger and distrust toward the European Union, including Greece's participation in narrative essays the Eurozone. Large segments of the Realize has Limited popular classes, of workers, employees, peasants, youths, members of the “professional classes,” small businessmen, have turned their back on personal essays, mainstream parties, leading to a political earthquake in the May June 2012 elections when both PASOK and New Democracy suffered great losses and SYRIZA came close to winning the June election and labour party uk policies gaining governmental power. Personal Narrative Essays? One can see the what same elements of an open political crisis even in opinion polls. SYRIZA and New Democracy are running neck and neck for the first position, whereas the once dominant PASOK is polling between 6 and essays 8 per cent. However, treating these tectonic political shifts as the simple result of social crisis and what are the four in the the deterioration of narrative social conditions is inferno far from providing a full image of the situation in Greece. Without a unique and without precedent sequence of struggles and personal narrative collective practices of resistance and solidarity, without a strong movement, which has been close to a modern version of a “protracted people's war,” we would not have experienced these political earthquakes. Soviet Union Vs Usa? It was exactly through these collective experiences of struggle, this feeling of anger turned into hope, this feeling of confidence and of being part of a people in struggle, expressed in concrete practices such as a demonstration, a clash with the police or a popular assembly, that people were again re-politicized, re-radicalized, moved to the Left. Were it not for the mass strikes, for the continuing struggles in many sectors, for the hundreds of personal solidarity initiatives, and for the many forms of resistance and disobedience, the political landscape would have been much more different. I would like to stages product cycle insist that when we talk about the experience of struggle in Greece, we are not talking simply about mass riots and whatever catches the personal narrative essays attention of international media, but about a much more complex set of inferno characters collective experiences and struggles. Apart from general strikes, we have had a whole series of labour confrontations both in narrative the public and the private sector.
To give an example, despite efforts from the government including continuous parliamentary coup detats (in the soviet union vs usa form of special legislation measures), the government is far from reaching the quota for public sector lay-offs dictated by the Troika. Teachers in Secondary Education massively voted in favour of striking during the university entry exams, forcing the government to issue an authoritarian back to work order. In Universities there have been important struggles in the past months against narrative mandatory closures and mergers of Departments and Schools, struggles that in some cases, such as the Athens University Faculty of Letters, were victorious. In Chalkidiki, in the North of Greece, local communities are still waging a heroic struggle against environmentally disastrous Gold mines, despite being treated as terrorists by labour uk policies the police and the justice system. At BIOME, a factory near Salonika we are already witnessing the first successful example of a self-managed factory. In many cities local citizen initiatives and popular assemblies are working with the narrative essays farmer's cooperatives in order for cheap quality agricultural products to be available to working people. Popular assemblies and people from the Left have organized social medicine centres, cooperative grocery stores, collective kitchens, and collective children day-care centres.
Teachers unions from both public and private education have organized free tutorial courses for children. There are also experiences with non market exchange networks in many cities. At the same time there has been a flourishing of Prefrontal anti-fascist initiatives and demonstrations, along with struggles against the exploitation of immigrant workers. Some weeks ago, in the strawberry plantations in Manolada, in West Peloponnese owners shot at immigrant workers who were demanding to be paid. The reaction was not only impressive demonstrations which united Greek and immigrant workers, but also an impressive organization drive toward the first such union of agricultural labourers in essays Greece. I am stressing this because in many instances the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA acts as if political power and consequently an end to austerity and a beginning of social transformation will simply come as the ripe fruit of worsening social conditions. Nothing is further from the truth. Without a mass movement, strong, politicized and in a position to make people confident again in their collective ability to change things no political change will ever be possible. What is more important, is that time matters!
Without mass collective practices, without struggles, without solidarity, people experience austerity and the constant devastation of their lives in an individualized manner. This doesn't breed rebellion. It rather breeds that kind of atomized, fragmented despair that fuels neo-fascism. If we look at the people following the neo-fascist Golden Dawn we will see that leaving aside these people that come from the traditions of the Greek far right, most of the people supporting Golden Dawn are people who are channeling exactly this kind of individualized despair toward the extreme reactionary discourse of Golden Dawn and its ersatz solidarity only for Greeks. I know that many people will raise the union vs usa objection that simply building a strong movement is not enough, since despite three years of general strikes (more than 25 since the Spring of 2010), mass occupations, impressive protests such as the Movement in the Squares from May to July 2011, big street clashes, various forms of narrative essays civil disobedience to tax hikes, successive governments have managed to soviet union pass one austerity bill after the other. Narrative Essays? Doesn't this stress the fact that only through a political solution, only through a change in what concerns governmental and political power, can we find a way out of the vicious circle of austerity, recession and unemployment?
It is obvious that Greece has entered what one might describe as a post-democratic condition. The traditional forms of political pressure that could force a government to step back from introducing reactionary measures through a calculation of the political cost, do not apply to Greece anymore. On the contrary, we have entered a condition of limited sovereignty, with the EU-IMF-ECB Troika dictating measures regardless of their social cost and with Greek governments simply capitulating to these demands, under the pressure of the dominant fractions of Greek capital. Without a political breakthrough, without a sharp change in union vs usa the political balance of forces in favour of the forces of labour and personal essays other popular classes, there can be no end in sight in the politics of austerity. We need such a broad popular alliance under the hegemony of the force of labour that will take governmental and political power and open up a political sequence of social transformation in characters a socialist direction. In sum what we need is to actually try and think how today's dynamics of anger, contention and protest can be turned into a highly original revolutionary process, revolutionary in personal essays the sense that it must challenge fundamental aspects of capitalist social relations and highly original because we cannot think about Essay Ethics: Avco it in terms of ready-made conceptions. Can this challenge be answered simply by struggling for narrative a left-wing government, a possibility that has dominated discussions within the Left in Europe, especially after the election of June 2012 when SYRIZA came close to power? First of all, this possibility represents the depth and the extent of the political crisis in Greece, the tectonic shifts in relations of political representation, as a result of the social crisis but also of the impressive series of struggles and are the four in the cycle collective practices of resistance, protest, disobedience and solidarity.
At the same time it brings forward the centrality of the question of political power in the current conjuncture in Greece. However, although the whole question of narrative essays a possibility of a left-wing government opens up the question of political power, this does not mean that SYRIZA, at least in its current policies and strategic proposals is the answer. In The Product Life? That is why it is narrative important to Essay Business Avco Environmental rethink questions of personal narrative essays political and governmental power. The first question arising when discussing such matters refers to the question of the program of Realize Our Planet Resources any attempt to fight for personal narrative essays political power. For many people, questions of Psychosurgery political program might seem like a luxury. For them what we need is to unite forces around simple demands, around this necessary no to austerity, instead of endless discussions on the program. However, there are aspects of the political program that do not represent ideological obsessions but attempts to come to terms with important material constraints for any potential left-wing politics.
Or to personal narrative put in simple terms there can be no left-wing governance without a left-wing program. To give perhaps the most important example, the question of the relation of Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies Greece to Eurozone and personal narrative essays the European Integration project in general is not an ideological obsession from the part of some tendencies of the characters Greek radical Left. On the contrary, it is one of the crucial questions that any attempt at left-wing governance will face. The European Union today is not simply turning more neoliberal (especially if we consider the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration project since the Single European Act of 1986), it is also turning into personal a highly undemocratic process, openly calling for limited sovereignty for countries in the European South, creating conditions of a race to the bottom of austerity, recession and unemployment, using in many instances an what stages in the product life cycle, openly neo-colonial rhetoric on narrative essays, the need to “reform those lazy Southerners.” The euro is not simply a currency, but represents a whole set of institutional restraints and obstacles to any progressive policies. At the same time it is an imperialist strategy. The euro as common currency in an economic area marked by sharp differences in productivity and competitiveness acted as an extra “comparative advantage” for the capitals of the hegemonic European social formations, such as Germany and as an “Iron Cage” of capitalist modernization for Our Planet has Limited peripheral social formations.
In a period of economic crisis it also enhances structural imbalances, inequalities and divergences, thus contributing to the debt and the general economic crisis of countries such as Greece. The Euro also forms the material ground of all forms of blackmail that any left-wing or progressive government will face in Greece. To put simply it is not possible to negotiate or take a firm stand against the austerity measures imposed upon Greece when the Eurogroup controls monetary policy, when the European Central Bank controls the narrative liquidity of banks, when a country remains dependent upon loans from the ECB and the IMF. Regaining monetary sovereignty, as a form of democratic social control of an important aspect of the Psychosurgery Lobotomies Essay economy is a necessary precondition for any potential progressive solution to personal narrative essays the Greek problem. I know that the counterargument is characters that a left-wing government, armed with the support and aspiration of the electorate will be in a position to take a firm stand against narrative the EU-IMF-ECB Troika, renegotiate successfully, obtain important concessions and party uk policies put an end to austerity. However, I think that this is personal as close to Prefrontal Essay a fantasy that we could get! That is why Cyprus offers an important example and a warning that we cannot avoid taking into account. Narrative? What happened in soviet union vs usa Cyprus? The EU-IMF-ECB Troika imposed a very aggressive austerity program. The Cypriot Parliament rejected this program, under the pressure of the people who were demonstrating in personal essays the streets.
The Cypriot government went to Brussels to renegotiate, taking a firm stand and demanding a better deal. However, it was also determined to stay within the monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone. The result was that it got an even worse deal than the original in terms of recession, austerity and unemployment. How can we be certain that a SYRIZA government determined to get rid of has Limited Resources austerity while remaining within the Eurozone, will not get the same treatment and personal narrative succumb to the same kind of blackmail? The argument that Greece is are the product cycle too big to fail does not hold, since by now it is obvious that most countries, central banks and international organizations are in a position to withstand the bankruptcy of a country like Greece. On the contrary, the unwillingness of the leadership of SYRIZA to even consider the possibility of a rupture with the European Integration process and the mechanism of debt-ridden austerity, leads it to make proposals that are not only out of narrative essays touch with the reality of power relations in the international plane, such as the proposal for Essay Avco Environmental a “New Marshal Plan” for Europe, but would also lead to an even greater dependence of the Greek economy on the funding from international organizations. There is essays nothing nationalist or chauvinist in opting for the exit of Greece from the Eurozone. Unless we think that it is nationalist and Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay chauvinist to fight for a rupture with the violence of neoliberalism and narrative essays the imperialist character of the labour party uk policies monetary and fiscal architecture of the Eurozone. As for the argument that it is better to wait for a pan-European movement to personal get rid of austerity, I believe that this argument misses an labour, important aspect of social struggles in Europe, namely the uneven character of their development.
Not all movements are equally radicalized and politicized and adopting such a strategy of waiting for a Pan-European movement will mean that the people in Greece will endure many more years of austerity and social devastation. There are some comrades that have suggested that opting for a return to monetary sovereignty will be equal to entering into an antagonism of competitive devaluations with Spanish or Portuguese workers. Personal Narrative? I also think that this is far from the truth. Getting Greece out of the Eurozone is are the in the not about personal narrative competitive devaluations but about protecting large segments of the popular classes against the systemic social violence of the party uk policies free movement of capitals and commodities across the European Union, about regaining democratic social control of the monetary policy and the economy in general, and about attempting to rely on the collective effort of working people to build an alternative future instead of being prey to the embedded neoliberalism of the European Integration Project. Moreover, I think that such a process will also be a true act of internationalism. Wouldn't it be a message of hope and a proof that social change is possible if social movements in a country of the narrative essays European South managed to break away from the Eurozone and begun a process of social transformation? Wouldn't this be the first step in getting rid of the euro and all the neoliberal and undemocratic framework of the soviet vs usa European Union? Wouldn't this open up the way for new forms of cooperation based on respect for democracy, popular sovereignty and common effort for a better future? In light of the essays above, recent interventions in the debates within the European Left in favour of a strategy of exit from the Eurozone, are more welcome.
The decision of AKEL to consider the possibility of Cyprus exiting the Eurozone, the report by Lobotomies Essay Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas [Ed.: see below for more on this report] on the crisis of the personal narrative essays Eurozone, and the public intervention by Oscar Lafontaine in favour of a potential “Grexit,” all these represent a welcome change and open up the space for a real discussion of radical alternatives. I do not want to suggest that the question of an alternative policy for Greece is limited to questions of monetary policy. Nor am I criticizing SYRIZA in the name of some abstract anti-capitalism like the one offered by party the Greek Communist Party who talks about socialism but only in another time, since today conditions are not ripe. What I am trying to suggest is that any possibility of an end to austerity must start with a set of urgent measures that are immediately needed in order to avoid social disaster and at the same time open up the way for a radical transformation of Greek society in a non-capitalist direction. Narrative Essays? These measures should include apart from the immediate exit from the Eurozone and potentially the EU, the annulment of debt, the nationalization of banks and strategic enterprises and redistribution income in favour of the forces of labour including a re-establishment of full trade union rights to organize and collectively bargain. Institutionally, this process should not be conceived in terms of remaining within the contours of existing legality (both national and European). Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay? On the personal narrative contrary it will require a new Constituent Process and deep changes that should include limitation to capitalist ownership, the right to occupy and self-manage abandoned or closed enterprises, and new and extended forms of social and workers control. It is on the basis of such measures that we can really start thinking about Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies radical changes in a socialist direction, in the sense of extended self-management, alternative forms of non-market distribution, new forms of democratic social planning, socialization of knowledge and expertise, new forms of democratic participation at all levels of decision-making. Implementing such measures will not be easy and it will require a new collective ethics and a strong sense of common effort and participation. That is why it is necessary to think of this challenge not in terms of governance but of a movement, of personal narrative a collective process of transformation. Has Limited Essays? Moreover, only a strong movement from below, in narrative essays the sense of extended forms of trade union action, of forms of popular democracy from below, of networks of solidarity, of forms of self-defence, can mount a successful resistance to all forms of formal and informal sabotage and counter-attacks from the part of the forces of capital, the justice system or the repressive apparatuses of the State. All these bring forward an important question.
It is not possible to deal with questions of left-wing government and what in the life cycle its relation to the movement without opening up the question of narrative a revolutionary strategy in the 21st century. Contrary to the position held by both SYRIZA and the Communist Party, that today there is no point in talking about revolutionary changes (in the case of SYRIZA in Realize Our Planet the name of the immediate need to avoid social disaster and in the case of KKE of the situation not being ripe enough), I want to personal essays stress that what has been happening in Greece in the past three years in terms of social protest and contention, of open political crisis, of has Limited Resources people abandoning mainstream parties and politics and being ready to accept radical solutions, of a demand of profound social and political change, of an acceptance of the need for new social and political configuration beyond actually existing neoliberalism, is the closest we could get to potentially pre-revolutionary situation. Of course, the essays situation is in a way unripe and immature, but hasn't this been the Our Planet has Limited Essays case with all sequences of major social and political transformation? However, this need for a new and necessarily original revolutionary strategy should not lead us to a dogmatic reproduction of either the personal democratic road to socialism position or the traditional insurrectionary conception of the revolutionary process. On the one hand we need to take into consideration that in advanced capitalist societies with developed forms of civil society institutions and extended apparatuses of hegemony it is necessary to conduct a modern version of war of position, a complex attempt at Realize Our Planet has Limited, creating forms and institutions of counter-power and counter-hegemony from below in a new and original form of a dual power strategy. On the other hand we need to find ways to accelerate and intensify processes of political and potentially hegemonic crisis and take advantage of narrative essays any opportunity to bring reactionary governments down under the pressure of the movement and use the window of opportunity opened by the possibility of a left-wing government along with an escalation of struggles and Avco Environmental confrontations with the logic of capital on narrative, all levels. What is needed is an characters, attempt to transform contemporary dynamics within Greek society into something close to an “historical block” to use Gramsci's term, not simply an electoral alliance, but the encounter between an alliance of the subaltern classes, a radical anti-capitalist program, in the sense of an alternative narrative, and new collective forms of organization and experimentation. Devising such a contemporary revolutionary strategy should also be seen as a learning process, through experimentation with current experiences of self-management, non-commodity provision of services, on direct democracy from below. However, most tendencies of the European Left do not even attempt to open up this debate, remaining entangled either in narrative “realist” proposals for a progressive governance that will not challenge the what are the product life cycle power of capital or the current architecture of globalized capitalism, or in personal narrative revolutionary fantasies about “storming the Winter Palace.”
And this is the problem with SYRIZA leadership's strategy. They treat the question of governmental power as a means to bring forward progressive reforms and Realize gradually put an end to austerity. To this end they take for personal essays granted all the institutional constraints of the Eurozone and the bail-out loan agreements. That is why they moved from a position of complete renunciation of the loan agreements to a position of party uk policies “renegotiation.” That is why they have been trying to develop a better understanding with representatives of big business, including media barons. That is why there have been references from the part of SYRIZA to personal narrative sound entrepreneurship and socially responsible investments. I do not wish to Ethics: Environmental deny the radicalism and the good will of personal narrative many comrades in SYRIZA and their commitment to Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay socialist politics, but the truth is that the current strategy by SYRIZA is far from answering these challenges. And this means that we must not think simply in terms of electoral dynamics. We still need a strong movement; we need to narrative reach a point where a parallel society of struggle, resistance and solidarity emerges. These struggles should not be conceived in the instrumental sense of either success or of failure. As I have already mentioned, traditional calculations of movement pressure do not apply to Greece. We need more to think in terms of a protracted peoples war in which the crucial point is not whether there is victory in the sense of an austerity bill not passing because of a mass strike, but more in terms of a constant attrition of the government and the Troika, of delays or blockages in aspects of the austerity measures, and of a growing collective confidence within the movement that in in the product the end we can win. Solidarity in the sense that people can be confident that through the collective practices they will avoid having their electricity cut-off, their home auctioned, that they will be able to cater for basic needs from food, to medicine to tutorial courses for their children, is extremely important, since it brings back confidence to collective struggle and the ability to build a better future.
At the same time, these collective practices must be seen also as the emergence of forms of popular power from below, as forms of an emerging contemporary form of dual power, as forms of self-defence against the aggressiveness of the narrative government and the forces of capital. Underestimating the importance of a strong movement and prolonged struggles means underestimating the dynamics of the class balance of forces. A prolonged period of social devastation without successful resistances does not necessarily lead to increased radicalism. More likely it will lead to despair and a collective feeling that nothing can be done. That is why political decisions regarding movements are crucial. The recent developments regarding the Secondary Education Teachers strike are in this sense revealing of the deficiencies of tactics of the Essay Business Ethics: Environmental Left. The decision of the leadership of SYRIZA to personal essays agree on calling off the strike, instead of attempting to break the characters government back to work order, was an expression not only of a deep rooted reformism but mainly of personal essays a conception of politics as electoral politics, not as an attempt to influence the real balance of forces. The SYRIZA leadership thought of this tactic as a way to get out of a political trap.
In reality this decision only reinforced the government's rhetoric that it is in Business Environmental a position to pre-emptively smash a movement. What can remain after such a confrontation are not only anger and protest against essays authoritarian measures, but also disappointment and what are the stages a feeling of futility. Above all, we need to think of this whole process not simply as an attempt by a progressive or benevolent government to save society but as a mass movement for the experimentation with new forms of organization of production, education, health. We need to make use of the collective experience and knowledge that have emerged in narrative essays the movements and struggles of the past years for this experimentation that cannot be left to specialists, even from the Business Ethics: Avco Left. Personal Narrative? The crisis and austerity in Greece have been a catalyst for many people, who faced with extremely aggressive policies are obliged to think differently. What Are The Four? When the government is personal narrative dismantling public education, militants in education trade unions are forced to think how we can operate schools differently.
When the public health is in Prefrontal Lobotomies ruins and is kept in place only by the efforts of doctors and other health workers, then public health unions face the question of what it means to actually run a truly public health system oriented toward improving the quality of life. This is exactly the kind of collective experimentation that can provide as with concrete answers regarding a contemporary socialist strategy. Are there signs of such processes in Greece today? Or have we arrived at an impasse and there is no other alternative than simply waiting for the next general election in the hope that the Left will get the mandate to form a government? I think that we are far from this. We may not have had in the past months the narrative kind of social explosion that gain the attention of international media, but everyday struggles continue in the form of small and big battles in various sectors, solidarity initiatives, and anti-fascist demonstrations. At the same time, things are changing in Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay the trade union movement, the Left is on personal narrative essays, the rise in four stages in the cycle important unions such as in personal narrative essays public education and public health and what four product life cycle this opens up the possibility for essays a radical reorientation.
Moreover, there is an open debate regarding the question of the political program and there are signs of characters mass appeal of a radical anti-EU, anti-euro position, especially after the experience of Cyprus. The current dialogue between ANTARSYA, the front of the anti-capitalist Left, and other radical groups in essays Greece, opens up the way for a third pole in the Greek Left that will insist on the actuality of such a radical political alternative, in labour uk policies an attempt to change the balance of forces within the Left. What is to essays be done? I think that the answer, at least for party uk policies all of us in the Greek Left, in ANTARSYA and other radical formations, that do not opt for a tactic of personal narrative simply hoping that we will somehow push SYRIZA to the Left, and at the same time do not want to engage in a destructive and sectarian criticism (like the labour party one coming from the personal narrative essays part of the Greek Communist Party), is to attempt to deal with the real challenges: To elaborate on the necessary transition program. To work within the movement and help the coordination of resistances, struggles and networks of solidarity, in order to make things even more difficult for the government and the Troika. To experiment with forms of self-management, self-organization and popular democracy from below. Therefore, we are far from the end of the movement. I think that despite the efforts from the part of the government, the Troika, the forces of capital to Psychosurgery Essay suppress collective practices, and despite the effort of the leadership of SYRIZA to channel this dynamic into a fruitlessly realist strategy of renegotiating austerity, Greece is still the most advanced laboratory of struggle and radical alternatives in Europe, and I hope that it will soon send a message of hope to working people all over personal narrative Europe. • Panagiotis Sotiris teaches social theory and social and political philosophy at the Department of Sociology of the University of the soviet union Aegean. This text is based on two presentations at personal, the “Marx is a Must” Conference in Berlin (9-11 May 2013), organized by the Marx 21 network, and first published on his blog at lastingfuture.blogspot.gr. The elephant in the room or why we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF recapitalization.
The report by Heiner Flassbeck and Costas Lapavitsas on the crisis of the what four in the cycle Eurozone has been an important step in re-opening the euro debate within the European Left. The political significance of the report was made even more evident by the fact that it was published by the Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung, and was endorsed by the leadership of Die Linke, especially after Oskar Lafontaine had also recently insisted on the need to consider the exit from the personal narrative essays Eurozone as a potential solution for countries of the European South such as Greece. It follows the decision by AKEL the Cypriote left-wing party to Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay propose Cyprus exit from the Eurozone, a proposition based upon scientific advice offered by amongst others Lapavitsas and Flassbeck. Greek workers walk out to protest ban on teachers' strike. The report itself is not a radical or Marxist manifesto. Although Lapavitsas has a strong Marxist background, the report is marked by Flassbeck's much more Keynesian approach. Moreover, it is not a report with an a priori hostility toward monetary union or currency coordination for Europe, nor is narrative it filled with anticapitalist references.
On the contrary it seems to inferno take the internationalization of trade and capital flows as granted. However, it is exactly this kind of critique from within aspects of the dominant economic paradigm that makes it even more interesting. This does not mean that it is essays not a radical critique of the dominant economic policies within the Eurozone. Rather, it is a devastating deconstruction of the contradictions, fallacies, and shortcomings of the inferno economic and financial architecture of the Eurozone. Particularly important is the emphasis on personal essays, the inability of inflation targets without real wage convergence to create a balanced common currency area. Moreover, the two writers highlight the direct causal connection between the imbalances in the Eurozone and trade deficits and also with increased public debt. This makes evident the fact that European leaders insist on denying: the euro itself as common currency is part of the problem of the economic crisis in the European South. It is also interesting that the labour party position the two writers take in personal regard to potential solutions within the Eurozone. They show convincingly that given the obvious inability to reach an actual political union in Business Ethics: Avco Environmental the EU it is not possible to have that kind of redistributive mechanisms that could tackle the problem of productivity and personal essays competitiveness divergence.
At the same time they remind us that there is no point in thinking in terms of transfers between countries because this could lead in a certain form of dependence of the countries receiving this kind of transfer funding. On the basis of these assumptions the inferno two writers insist on narrative, the need for an orderly and prepared exit from the Eurozone and in this sense a dismantling of the current financial and monetary architecture of the Eurozone. To this end they also deconstruct the argument that such a move, which would necessarily include measures such as capital controls and restrictions to bank transactions, is not possible, by inferno pointing to the developments in essays Cyprus where the EU accepted the imposition of capital controls as a means to avoid the complete implosion of the Cypriot banking system. In this sense the taboo has already been broken. In light of the above it is Prefrontal really interesting to see the personal essays reactions of the Greek Left and especially SYRIZA regarding these positions. As with the case of the change of AKEL's adoption of the exit from the Eurozone strategy, SYRIZA leadership chose to politely refuse such proposals, despite the appeal of this position in the large segments of the electorate of the Greek Left. In many instances representatives of the leadership's position within SYRIZA have criticized the exit from the Eurozone as being nationalist and in opposition to class politics. However, the problem is that the dominant narrative of SYRIZA leadership that the main target must be pan-European cooperation of the Left and social movements aiming at a break of austerity while remaining within the Psychosurgery Lobotomies Essay Eurozone, comes in contrast with the decision of other parties of the European Left to discuss the possibility of an exit from the Eurozone.
The argument from the part of SYRIZA leadership that opening the narrative debate on the exit of the Eurozone would offer pro-austerity forces the chance to put pressure on SYRIZA, alienate segments of the electorate (who remain ideologically attached to the euro), and Essay Ethics: Environmental consequently jeopardize a possible election victory, misses the essays main point. As long as the Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay Greek Left does not challenge the euro as the central node for the current particularly European version of the neoliberal There Is No Alternative, the political debate will remain cornered in a discursive terrain that is much more suitable to systemic pro-austerity forces than to personal narrative essays social movements. This helps pro-austerity forces, both politically and electorally. Party? In contrast, working toward the break with the Eurozone opens up the political space to essays work and experiment with radical economic and social alternatives that go beyond the limits of neoliberal capitalism and can help the Left emerge as an actual political alternative and not just an electoral outlet for protest. Moreover, it is not possible to have radical changes without some form of rupture with the current financial, monetary and institutional framework of the Eurozone and the dominant strategy within the EU.
In the long run, everyone would agree that we cannot have socialism based upon EFSF and ECB recapitalization. • Middle class civil war in Greece: latest update and conclusions. #1 Miguel Figueroa 2013-05-28 04:50 EDT. Where have we heard this before? Reading The Greek Crisis and what are the stages product the Left Response by Panagiotis Sotiris, one cannot but agree with its main theses: (1) the direct and inescapable connection between the deepening crisis in Greece and its continuing servitude to the EC monopolists and bankers; and (2) the need therefore for the Greek working class to sharply criticize SYRIZA's pathetic pro-Eurozone position, and make a strategic break with its (il)logic.
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Aldous Huxley Huxley, Aldous - Essay. Aldous Huxley 1894-1963. British-American novelist, short story writer, essayist, poet, and personal playwright. See also Aldous Huxley Criticism (Volume 1), and Volumes 3 , 4 , 5 , 8 , 18 . Huxley's short stories, all written between 1920 and 1930, cover a relatively short period in his prolific forty-seven-year writing career. Uk Policies! The author celebrated for novels of ideas, in particular the personal essays dystopian novel Brave New World , is little remembered today for his short fiction, but they do reflect in less complex structure many of the concerns he developed in his mature works. These include the union search for order in chaos; the personal narrative fragmentation, decay, and lack of soviet, wholeness and values in postwar society; the hostility of a world that thwarts ambition and expectations; and the artist's quest for identity. Most of the stories are witty and satirize modern values, particularly among the personal narrative upper class, and display a sometimes bitter skepticism at the meaningless of life. While they were received fairly well during his life, later scholars of soviet union vs usa, Huxley's work have generally ignored the stories, as it is personal agreed that the author's important ideas and Realize Our Planet concerns are given a far more eloquent voice in his novels. Personal Narrative! However, the stories continue to be appreciated for their wry humor, brilliant observation, sophisticated literary style, and soviet union vs usa skeptical view of humanity in post-World War I England. Huxley was born in 1894 in Surrey, England, to narrative, an intellectually prominent family. His father, Leonard, was a respected essayist and Realize Our Planet has Limited Resources editor, and personal narrative essays his grandfather, Thomas Henry Huxley, was a leading biologist and proponent of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.
He was also the great-nephew of the poet Matthew Arnold, the union grandson of the Reverend Thomas Arnold, and the nephew of the novelist Mrs. Humphrey Ward. Huxley's brother, Julian, would eventually become a noted biologist and his half-brother, Andrew, would win the 1963 Nobel Prize for his work in physiology. Personal Essays! The early years in Huxley's life were passed happily in a stimulating, intellectual household. Characters! He was known as a sensitive boy and personal one who showed a mystical bent early on. But a series of tragedies befell Huxley in Essay Ethics: Avco, his teenage years.
In 1908 his mother died of cancer, two years later he contracted an eye disease that permanently damaged his sight, and in personal narrative essays, 1914 his brother Trevenen committed suicide. These events had a profound effect on the concerns and mood of Huxley's writing. While at Oxford from 1913 to Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay, 1916 Huxley started editing literary journals and began writing. In 1916, he published his first volume of poetry. Personal! He married a young Belgian refugee, Maria Nys, in 1919, and a year later his son, Matthew, was born. That year he also published his first volume of stories, Limbo to mild critical acclaim; two years later he produced another volume, Mortal Coils . Huxley gained wider recognition with his novel Crome Yellow ; by 1923 his reputation was sufficiently secure that Chatto and Windus agreed to publish two of his works of fiction each year for the next three years. In 1923 Huxley and his wife moved to Italy, where they lived for four years. While abroad he wrote and published the novels Antic Hay and Those Barren Leaves and two volumes of vs usa, short fiction, Little Mexican and Other Stories and Two or Three Graces and Other Stories.
Huxley's volume of stories, Brief Candles , appeared in 1930, two years after the release of his highly acclaimed novel of ideas, Point Counter Point , which secured his reputation as one of the important literary figures of personal narrative essays, his day. After 1930, Huxley's work began to reflect his increasing concern with humanistic ideas and ideals as well as politics. This is most vividly shown in labour party uk policies, Brave New World, his ironic satire of a utopia, which warns us against the dangers of political manipulation and technological development. In the late 1930s Huxley moved to California, where he became a screenwriter and essays developed his interest in mysticism, Eastern thought, and mind-altering drugs; he examines his experiences with one of these, mescaline, in The Doors of Perception . Huxley's later work clearly disavows some of the bleakness of his earlier outlook, and seeks a positive solution to the problem of an insane world. Perhaps as an antidote to his despairing sentiments in Brave New World, in his final novel, Island , he depicts a good utopia. Huxley remained in California for most of the rest of his life. His wife, Maria, died in 1955, and Huxley married Laura Archera a year later.
He died on November 22, 1963, the same day that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Major Works of Psychosurgery Prefrontal Lobotomies, Short Fiction. Huxley produced eight volumes of personal narrative, short stories in his career. The first, Limbo, is are the stages product life cycle a collection of six satiric tales about essays, English country-house characters. These youthful wartime stories are full of parallels with Huxley's own life: in Death of Lully a woman has breast cancer, as did Huxley's own mother; a suicide like that of Realize has Limited Resources, Huxley's brother occurs in Eupompus gave Splendour to Art by Numbers. Also, there are numerous allusions to personal essays, distorted vision; the stories' narrators are often erudite and urbane as Huxley himself was; many of the characters are cerebral persons who neglect their emotional and social aspects. The tone of the stories, for all their witty satire, is inferno characters one of decay and fragmentation, of hopes and narrative values lost. The 1922 volume Mortal Coils continues many of these themes in a postwar setting. In this volume appears Huxley's best known story, The Gioconda Smile, about a man, Hutton, who fails in his attempt to live a life of inferno, reason and restrain his emotional appetites.
Also in personal narrative, the volume is Nuns and what are the stages life Luncheon, a bitterly sad story of Sister Agatha who falls in love with a wounded soldier she has nursed and who leaves the convent only to be abandoned and humiliated by the man she considered her savior. Huxley's next collection, Little Mexican contains the long tale Uncle Spenser that captures the harsh realities of lives disrupted by war. While in prison camp, Uncle Spenser falls in love with a fellow prisoner, a girl half his age named Emmy Wendle, whom he believes he will marry, but after the war he cannot find her. Another notable story in narrative, the collection, Young Archimedes, about a child musical genius who commits suicide, is another statement of Huxley's common themes of has Limited Essays, expectations dashed and the difficulty in coming to terms with reality in a disorderly world. Two or Three Graces contains a novella of that name and several shorter pieces. Kingham, the central character of the personal essays novella, has similarities with the novelist D. H. Lawrence, whom Huxley met in soviet union, 1915 and personal became friends with in Italy. Kingham is a writer with perverse passions and whose unreason dominates his affair with Grace Peddley, whom he humiliates in order to stimulate his own emotions. The other stories in Psychosurgery Lobotomies, the volume are about lonely, ostracized persons whose romantic expectations of the world do not square with its harsh reality. Personal Narrative Essays! Huxley's final collection of short fiction, Brief Candles, is filled with emotionally and spiritually impoverished characters, most notably in The Claxtons, about a family of union vs usa, egocentric personalities. The novella After the Fireworks, about an aging novelist who has affinities with Lawrence's view, is a satire of Lawrence's philosophy of harmony expressed through sexuality, as the protagonist becomes literally ill after taking a young lover.
This was probably the last short piece Huxley wrote and shows his growing concern with the need for spiritually meaningful answers in a disordered and chaotic world. Huxley's reputation was built on his novels and nonfiction, and today scholarly interest in his work is generally confined to his writing in those genres. Narrative! During his lifetime, Huxley's short fiction drew mixed reviews. With the publication of Limbo, Huxley was hailed by many as an inferno characters important new voice that portrayed with delicacy and sophistication the postwar temperament. However, some critics complained about the self-consciously clever tone and lack of depth to the stories. Virginia Woolf, in an early review of Limbo, though, called the tales more than amusing, insisting that when Huxley forgets himself his stories can be interesting. The feeling of most critics, however, was that Huxley was not a natural short story writer. While admiring their artistic sophistication, fresh sense of personal narrative essays, irony, and insightful observation, most early reviewers felt that the tales suffered from saying too much and not staying true to the short story form. Contemporary critics also tend to characters, dismiss Huxley's stories as being of little importance in his literary corpus. Personal Narrative! They contend Huxley needed the Psychosurgery Essay fuller range of the novel to fully develop his ideas, and personal essays most of his important concerns are reflected in his longer works. Labour! Huxley too felt his calling was not as a short story writer, and in a letter to his father explained that the mere business of telling a story interests me less and less. The only personal essays really and permanently absorbing things are attitudes towards life and the relation of man to the world. Huxley's stories are interesting today primarily for the insight they provide into vs usa, his development as a writer and for his depiction of the social despair of the postwar period.
Access our Aldous Huxley Study Guide for Free. Mortal Coils 1922. Little Mexican and Other Stories 1924. Two or Three Graces and Other Stories 1926. Brief Candles 1930. The Gioconda Smile 1938. Twice Seven; Fourteen Selected Stories 1944. Collected Short Stories 1969. The Burning Wheel (poetry) 1916.
Leda and Other Poems (poetry) 1920. Crome Yellow (novel) 1921. Essays! Antic Hay (novel) 1923. On the Margin (essays) 1923. What In The Life! Point Counter Point (novel) 1925. Those Barren Leaves (novel) 1925. Brave New World (novel) 1932. Eyeless in Gaza (novel) 1936. After Many a Summer (novel) 1939. Time Must Have a Stop (novel) 1944. The Perennial Philosophy (essay) 1945.
The Gioconda Smile (play) 1948. Ape and narrative essays Essence (novel) 1948. The Doors of Perception (essay) 1954. The Genius and the Goddess (novel) 1955. Heaven and Hell (nonfiction) 1956. Brave New World Revisited (essay) 1958.
Literature and Science (essay) 1963. Psychosurgery Essay! Herbert S. Gorman (review date 1920) SOURCE: In a review of Limbo, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, 1975, pp. 43-5. [ In the following review of personal narrative, Limbo , originally published in The New Republic in 1920, Gorman compares Huxley's work to Max Beerbohm's. Inferno Characters! ] Mr. Aldous Huxley, a new and extremely prepossessing English writer, has just been introduced to America with two volumes, Limbo, a collection of prose sketches written in a vein that is, to say the least, individual, and Leda and Other Poems, containing verse that smacks mightily of Mr. T. S. Eliot, and yet has an intriguing appeal quite its own. It was, I believe, in 1916 that Mr. Huxley's. (The entire section is 1150 words.) Get Free Access to this Aldous Huxley Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Personal! Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. Our Planet Has Limited Resources! We've broken down the chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on narrative essays your first read-through.
Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Union Vs Usa! SOURCE: In a review of Limbo, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by personal narrative, Donald Watt, 1975, pp. 41-2. [ In the following review of Limbo , originally published in The Times Literary Supplement in 1920, Woolf calls Huxley's stories clever, amusing, interesting, and are the stages product life cycle well written. ] We know for ourselves that Mr. Huxley is very clever; and his publisher informs us that he is young.
For both these reasons his reviewers may pay him the personal narrative compliment, and give themselves the inferno characters pleasure, of taking him seriously. Instead, that is, of narrative essays, saying that there are seven short stories in Limbo which are all clever, amusing, and well written, and recommending. (The entire section is 584 words.) Get Free Access to this Aldous Huxley Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. William Jacob Cuppy (review date 1922) SOURCE: Huxley as a Serious Writer, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, 1975, pp. Labour Uk Policies! 74-6. Narrative Essays! [ In the review of Mortal Coils below, which was originally published in the New York Sunday Tribune in 1922, Cuppy rejects earlier assessments of this collection as superficial, insisting that Huxley is a serious writer. ] In the Dial for June Mr. Raymond Mortimer opines that the principal end and inferno aim of Aldous Huxley is to be amusing, and insists to the author of Crome Yellow upon the importance of being earnest.
On May 27 Mr. Burton Rascoe, having lunched, allowed in the Doran offices as to how. (The entire section is 845 words.) Times Literary Supplement (review date 1924) Times Literary Supplement (review date 1924) SOURCE: Huxley's Elasticity, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, 1975, pp. 104-05. [ In the following review of Little Mexican , originally published in the Times Literary Supplement in 1924, the personal critic praises the elasticity in Huxley's work, admiring what others might criticize as disproportionate description and indulgence of literary power. ] About Mr. Aldous Huxley there is an Essay Business Avco Environmental elasticity that keeps his work interesting and personal narrative essays even exciting. His last novel, Antic Hay, was as rigidly constructed and tightly compacted as a novel could well. (The entire section is 714 words.) SOURCE: Arnold Bennett on Little Mexican, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975, pp. 106-07. [ In the following excerpt from his journals, the noted author and critic Bennett generally approves of the characterization in Essay Business, the tales in Little Mexican but says the stories have no proper end and the characters are drawn a little too thoroughly. ] About Uncle Spencer. This is the first book of Aldous Huxley's that I have really liked. Character drawing in it, for personal narrative essays, the first time in his books. Uncle Spencer is uk policies drawn, emphatically.
But technically the story is clumsy. The story nearly ends. (The entire section is essays 260 words.) SOURCE: Two or Three Graces, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975, pp. Vs Usa! 137-38. [ In the following review of Two or Three Graces , originally published in the Saturday Review in 1926, Hartley calls Huxley a literary acrobat whose perfect execution of difficult feats sometimes leaves readers disappointed because there is little to glean behind the personal narrative essays lucidity of his words. ] However good Mr. Huxley's work may be one rarely reads it without a small pang of disappointment. To surpass themselves is for many novelists a comparatively easy task; but here is one who has contrived to set his own. Lobotomies Essay! (The entire section is 602 words.) Joseph Wood Krutch (review date 1926) SOURCE: More Barren Leaves, in Aldous Huxley: The Critical Heritage, edited by Donald Watt, Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975, pp.
139-41. [ In the following review originally published in the Nation in 1926, Krutch calls Two or Three Graces a grotesquely tragic story that for all its ironical detachment is essentially concerned with moral questions and the world and its ways. ] Mr. Aldous Huxley, probably the most intelligent of les fauves, 1 exhibits alternately the two moods, the personal narrative disdainful and the explosive, of his mind. In the first he is an labour uk policies aloof satirist regarding human follies with an personal narrative essays air of great detachment and. (The entire section is 1059 words.) SOURCE: This Petty Pace, in Our Planet has Limited Resources Essays, The Nation (New York), Vol. 130, No. 3387, June 4, 1930, p. 654. [ In the following review of Brief Candles , Hazlitt argues that Huxley brings a message to his storiesthat if one tries to essays, be superhuman, one becomes subhuman. ] After half a dozen volumes Aldous Huxley has returned to the short story, but he does not bring his old irresponsibility with him.
He has acquired a Message, and he insists that we shall hear it. It is the same message that raised its head in nearly every one of the essays in in the life cycle, Do What You Will, to wit, that if one tries to be superhuman one ends by being subhuman, that the best way of turning a child. (The entire section is essays 839 words.) Kenneth Payson Kempton (essay date 1953) SOURCE: Persons, in Short Stories for Study, Harvard University Press, 1953, pp. 272-77. [ In the following study of Nuns at Luncheon, Kempton offers two interpretations of the Essay Business satirical story: as a tale within an anecdote which is personal narrative essays a fiction that ends as a polemic, and as a straightforward realistic piece that is vs usa no less satirical for being objectified and held in control. Narrative! ] The story sparkles. Several technical instruments and factors in the management of content contribute to Resources Essays, the display. The immediate scene in the restaurant gathers together and narrative essays unifies for a single effect a number of told immediate scenes and a multitude of details widely separate in. (The entire section is uk policies 1997 words.) SOURCE: In a review of Aldous Huxley's Collected Short Stories, in London Magazine Vol. 4 1957, pp. Personal! 65-8. [ In the Essay Business Ethics: Environmental following review of Collected Short Stories , Newby finds Huxley's short stories strained and anti-intellectual, contending that Huxley is narrative not a true short story writer despite the brilliant analysis and labour party observation revealed in some tales. ] One thinks of Aldous Huxley as an intellectual writer. One associates him with the Twenties, short skirts and chromium plate; and personal narrative one thinks of him, again, as an historian and pamphleteer, disenchanted with the twentieth century, doubtful whether the past was any better and apprehensive of the Realize Our Planet has Limited Essays future; a. (The entire section is 1024 words.) SOURCE: Mellifluous Educator, in The New Statesman and Nation, Vol.
LIII, No. Personal Narrative! 1371, June 22, 1957, p. Business Ethics: Environmental! 814. Narrative Essays! [ In the following review of Collected Short Stories , Pritchett contends that the short story form was indadequate for Huxley's great scoldings. ] The attraction of the early Huxley wasas I recallthat of Ethics:, a young fashionable preacher: he was brilliant, worldly, flashing with culture. He was profane and yet soothing, destructive butinevitable in the Huxleysa mellifluous educator. The pleasure of his novels came not very much from his people (who were indeed thin transcripts from educated society between London and the. Personal Narrative! (The entire section is 1019 words.) Arthur F. Beringause (essay date 1964) SOURCE: Debate Between Body and party uk policies Soul, in The CEA Critic, Vol. XXVI, No. 9, June, 1964, pp. 1, 4. [ In the following essay, Beringause contends that an analysis of The Gioconda Smile reveals that Huxley is more than a negative propagandist who satirizes negative nostrums. ] Study of Aldous Huxley's well-known and consistently misinterpreted short story The Gioconda Smile reveals that his application of Freudian theory to personal narrative essays, art early made him into Realize has Limited Resources, a much better craftsman than his critics have been willing to admit. This is not to imply that he accepted psychoanalysis and rejected religion.
Using sordid details of narrative, a vulgar love affair. (The entire section is 1925 words.) SOURCE: Struggles with Style and soviet union vs usa Form: From the Early Verse to personal essays, Crome Yellow, in Aldous Huxley and the Way to Reality, Indiana University Press, 1970, pp. 1-38. [ In the following excerpt from characters, his full-length study of narrative essays, Huxley's works, Holmes discusses the early story Eupompus Gave Splendour to Art by Numbers and notes its autobiographical elements. ] In Aldous Huxley's Eupompus Gave Splendour to Art by Numbers, 1 an intelligent, stable, normal man tells the story of his odd but brilliant friend named Emberlin. Emberlin, we learn, has been studying Eupompus, the fifth century B.C. painter mentioned by Ben Jonson, who actually did base his. (The entire section is 4166 words.) SOURCE: The Absurdity of the Hedonist in Huxley's The Gioconda Smile, in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. Labour Uk Policies! VII, No.
2, Spring, 1970, pp. 328-30. [ In the following essay, Watt argues that in his story The Gioconda Smile, Huxley crystallizes a significant theme that appears in his work as he seeks value and meaning in lifethe absurdity of the hedonist. ] The Gioconda Smile, perhaps Aldous Huxley's best-known short story, presents in cameo form one of the leading themes of his major fiction. 1 The utter insufficiency of the personal narrative hedonist's way of life is soviet union vs usa a recurring idea in Huxley's fiction, an idea that conveys his seminal theme of the. Personal Narrative! (The entire section is 1367 words.) SOURCE: The Use of Essay Ethics: Avco Environmental, Irony in Aldous Huxley's Short Fiction, in narrative, On Poets and Poetry, edited by Dr. James Hogg, Institut fur Anglistik und Amerikanistik, 1984 pp. 181-214. [ In the following essay, Schubert maintains Huxley's short fiction is mainly concerned with humans' inescapable predestinatio, and that the labour uk policies predominant stylistic device he uses to express this is irony. ] Huxley began his literary career in personal, 1916 with a volume of poems called The Burning Wheel. Four years later Limbo, his first volume of short stories was published, followed by inferno characters, his first novel Crome Yellow in 1921. Personal Essays! During the period from 1920 to 1930 Huxley tried all literary.
(The entire section is 8137 words.) Eschelbach, Claire John and Shober, Joyce Lee. Aldous Huxley: A Bibliography 1916-1959. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1961, 150 p. Lists all of Huxley's published writings as well as secondary studies of his work until 1959; includes a foreword by Huxley. Bedford, Sybille. Huxley . London: Carrol Graf, 1985, 769 p. Comprehensive biography detailing Huxley's literary and private life as well as the intellectual and social era in labour party, which he was a central figure.
Huxley, Laura Archera. This Timeless Moment: A Personal View of. (The entire section is 181 words.) Aldous Huxley Homework Help Questions. One of the most powerful educators in a person's life is personal experience. When someone gives advice that they stand firmly behind, they frequently say, I speaketh from experience. Many people. Island embodies Huxley's belief that cultural alternatives and futures can exist if individuals possess the capacity to embrace something that might represent the opposite of their perceived. Psychosurgery! It is interesting to reflect that in spite of the way that Huxley is now so much a part of many curricula, when his work was first published it was often banned from appearing in personal essays, schools and also. Lobotomies Essay! The dystopian world in personal essays, which Lenina and Bernard live is one that is Realize Resources Essays based around the suppression of the essays individual for the good of the community. This is Lobotomies something that is reinforced at various. Aldous Huxley was a respected author of science-fiction and other works. He was British, so his name follows the conventions of British pronunciation instead of American pronunciation.
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Essay on Plant Tissue Culture: History, Methods and Application. Read this essay to learn about Plant tissue Culture. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Definition of Plant Tissue Culture 2. History of Plant Tissue Culture 3. Basic Requirements 4. General Techniques 5. Basic Aspects 6. Cellular Totipotency 7. Personal Narrative Essays! Differentiation 8. Methods in Plant Tissue Culture 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture 10. Labour Party! Morphogenesis 11. Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture and Others. Essay on personal, Plant Tissue Culture Contents: Essay on the Definition of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the History of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Requirements of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the General Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Basic Aspects of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Cellular Totipotency Essay on the Differentiation Essay on the Methods in Plant Tissue Culture Essay on the Applications of Plant Tissue Culture Essay on Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay, the Morphogenesis Essay on the Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture Essay on the Soma-Clonal Variation Essay on the Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids Essay on the Micro-Propagation Essay on the Artificial Seed Essay on the Cryopreservation. Essay # 1. Definition of Plant Tissue Culture: Plant tissue culture has a great significance in plant biotechnology specially in the crop improvement programmes. The term tissue culture may be defined as the process of in-vitro culture of explants (pieces of living differentiated tissues) in nutrient medium under aseptic conditions.
However, in general, the tissue culture includes the term tissue culture as well as cell culture, organ culture and suspension culture also. Plant tissue culture is fundamental to most aspects of biotechnology of plants. It is evident now that plant biotechnology is one of the most beneficial of all the sciences. The products of plant biotechnology are being transferred rapidly from laboratories to the fields. Also, the plant tissue culture has become of great interest to the molecular biologists, plant breeders and even to the industrialists, as it helps in improving the narrative essays plants of economic importance. In addition to all this, the tissue culture contributes immensely for understanding the patterns and responsible factors of growth, metabolism, morphogenesis and differentiation of plants. The in-vitro culture of the tissue e.g.
Callus culture. Denotes the in-vitro culture of single or a few cells. This term is Business Avco Environmental, used for personal essays in-vitro culturing of organs like embryo, root or shoot apices. Defined as the culture of cell and cell aggregates suspended in a liquid medium. The excised piece of differentiated tissue or the organ which is used for culture is called as explant. e.g., embryos, young leaf, bud, etc. The undifferentiated mass of cells is referred to as callus. The cells of callus are meristematic in nature. Essay # 2. Party Uk Policies! History of Plant Tissue Culture:
G. Haberlandt, a German botanist, in 1902 cultured fully differentiated plant cells isolated from narrative essays, different plants. Psychosurgery Essay! This was the very first step for the beginning of plant cell and tissue culture. Narrative Essays! Further contributions were made by the Cell Doctrine which admitted that a cell is capable of showing totipotency. With the identification of a variety of chemicals like cytokinin, auxin, other hormones, vitamins, etc. and Psychosurgery Essay their role in affecting cell division and differentiation, the methods of plant tissue culture developed in a proper manner. Three other scientists Gautheret, White and Nobecourt also made valuable contributions to the development of plant tissue culture techniques. Later on, a number of suitable culture media were developed, for culturing plant cells, tissues, protoplasts, embryos, anthers, root tips, etc. The discovery and understanding of role of plant growth hormones in the multiplication of cell also provided an extra aid for the development of in-vitro culture methods of plants. The first plant from a mature plant cell was regenerated by Braun in 1959.
Foundation of personal essays, commercial plant tissue culture was laid in 1960 with the discovery for a million fold increase in the multiplication of Cymbidium (an orchid) which was accomplished by inferno characters G.M.Morel. In India, the work on tissue culture was initiated during 1950s at University of Delhi. This initiation is credited to Shri Panchanan Maheshwari who was working there in the Department of Botany. Discovery of personal essays, haploid production was a land-mark in the development of in-vitro culturing of plants. Shri S.C. Maheshwari and Sipra Guha made a remarkable contribution in Essay Business the development of plant tissue culture in India. Later on the development in personal narrative the composition of nutrient media and genetic engineering served as a basis for further success in the plant tissue culture techniques. Gottleib Haberlandt was the first person to make attempts for union vs usa plant tissue culture, i.e., he developed the concept of in-vitro culture of plant cells and is aptly regarded as the personal essays father of union, tissue culture. Thereafter, there happened some dramatic advances in tissue culture techniques. Some of the early classical contributions in narrative the field of plant tissue culture are tabulated below: Essay # 3. Basic Requirements and Techniques of Plant Tissue Culture:
The main requirements of plant tissue culture are: (1) Laboratory Organisation. (2) Culture Media. (3) Aseptic Conditions. In a standard tissue culture lab, there must be a few basic facilities like: i. Soviet Vs Usa! A Media Room for preparation, sterilization and storage of narrative essays, culture media. ii. Facilities for washing of Essay Business Ethics: Environmental, lab-wares, explants, etc.
iii. Space for storage of lab-wares. iv. Culture rooms or incubators where conditions of temperature, humidity and light etc. can be maintained. v. Narrative! Observation and Data Collection area. The formulation or the inferno medium on which the explant is personal narrative essays, cultured is called culture medium. It is composed of various nutrients required for proper culturing. Different types of plants and organs need different compositions of culture media.
A number of media have been devised for specific tissues and organs. Some important of them are: MS (Murashige and Skoog) Medium. LS (Linsmaier and Skoog) Medium. B5 (Gamborgs) Medium. Whites Medium, etc. Important constituents of a culture medium are: (a) Vitamins like thiamine (B 1 ), Pyridoxin (B 6 ), Nicotinic Acid (B 3 ), etc.
(b) Antibiotics like Streptomycin, Kanamycin; (c) Amino Acids like Arginine, Asparagine. (ii) Inorganic Nutrients: Micronutrients as Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Molybdenum (Mo), Copper (Cu), Boron (B). Macronutrients include six major elements as Nitrogen (N), Sulphur (S), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg). (iii) Carbon and Energy Source: Most preferred carbon source is Sucrose.
Others include lactose, maltose, galactose, raffinose, cellobiose, etc. (iv) Growth Hormones: a. Auxins-mainly for inducing cell division. b. Cytokinins-mainly for modifying apical dominance and shoot differentiation. c. Abscisic Acid (ABA)-Used occasionally. d. Gibberellins-Used occasionally. These are added to media to make them semisolid or solid. Agar, Gelatin, Alginate etc. are common solidifying or gelling agents. Other Organic Extracts: Sometimes culture media are supplemented with some organic extracts also like coconut milk, orange juice, tomato juice, potato extract, etc.
1 ltr of MS medium = (50 ml of stock solution I)+ (5ml of each stock solutions II, III.IV) Maintenance of aseptic conditions is the inferno most critical and difficult aspect of in-vitro culturing experiments. Essays! Aseptic condition mean the conditions free from any type of microorganisms (so as to prevent the loss of experiment by contamination). For this, sterilization (i.e., complete removal or killing of microbes) is soviet vs usa, done. Personal Narrative! The most common contaminants in culture are fungi and bacteria. Measures to be taken for maintaining asepsis during tissue culture are: i. Sterilization of the culture vessels using detergents, autoclaves, etc. ii.
Sterilization of instruments like forceps, needles etc. by Essay Avco flame sterilization. iii. Sterilization of culture medium using filter sterilization or autoclaving methods. iv. Surface sterilization of explants using surface disinfectants like Silver Nitrate (1%), H 2 O 2 (10-12%), Bromine water (1-2%), Sodium Hypochlorite solution (0.3-0.6%), etc. The whole procedure of narrative, plant tissue culture is to be carried out essentially under aseptic conditions. So, the overall design of the laboratory must focus on Lobotomies Essay, the maintenance of aseptic conditions. Personal Essays! Secondly, the worker is also required to have proper knowledge of operating various equipments like pH meter, balance, laminar air flow, microscope, etc. While performing the tissue culture experiments there must present the first aid kits and fire extinguishers in the laboratory to avoid any mishap or accident. In addition, proper attention should be given while handling the toxic chemicals and all the chemicals should be kept in correct labeled containers and bottles.
Essay # 4. Soviet! General Technique of Plant Tissue Culture: General technique of plant cell, tissue and organ culture is almost the same with a little variation for different plant materials. There are certain basic steps for personal essays the regeneration of labour party, a complete plant from an essays explant cultured on the nutrient medium (Fig. 1). These basic steps for in-vitro culturing of plants are: (a) Selection and Sterilisation of Explant: Suitable explant is selected and four in the product life cycle is then excised from the donor plant. Personal Narrative! Explant is then sterilized using disinfectants.
(b) Preparation and Our Planet Sterilisation of Culture Medium: A suitable culture medium is prepared with special attention towards the objectives of culture and type of personal, explant to be cultured. Prepared culture medium is transferred into sterilized vessels and then sterilized in autoclave. Sterilized explant is inoculated (transferred) on the culture medium under aseptic conditions. Cultures are then incubated in Realize Our Planet Resources the culture room where appropriate conditions of light, temperature and personal essays humidity are provided for successful culturing. Cultured cells are transferred to a fresh nutrient medium to obtain the party plantlets. After the hardening process (i.e., acclimatization of plantlet to the environment), the plantlets are transferred to green house or in pots. Equipment in Tissue Culture Lab: Essay # 5. Personal Narrative! Basic Aspects of Plant Tissue Culture: In plant tissue culture technique, an explant is taken, it is cultured on a nutrient medium under certain conditions and finally we obtain a whole new plant.
How does it happen? The answer to this question lies in the inherent capacities of plant cells that are differentiation and cellular totipotency. The potential of a plant cell to grow and develop into a whole new multicellular plant is described as cellular totipotency. In other words, the property of Realize Our Planet Resources, a single cell for personal narrative differentiating into many other cell types is Psychosurgery, called as totipotency. This is the narrative essays property which is found only in living plant cells and Psychosurgery Prefrontal not in animal cells (exception being stem cells in animals).
The term totipotency was coined in 1901 by Morgan. During culture practice, an explant is personal, taken from a differentiated, mature tissue. Party Uk Policies! It means, the cells in explants are generally non-dividing and quiescent in nature. To show totipotency, such mature, non-dividing cells undergo changes which revert them into a meristematic state (usually a callus state). Personal Essays! This phenomenon of reverting back of vs usa, mature tells to dividing state is called dedifferentiation. Now, these dedifferentiated cells have the ability to form a whole plant or plant organ. This phenomenon is termed as re-differentiation. Dedifferentiation and re-differentiation are the two inherent phenomena involved in the cellular totipotency.
Regarding this, it is clear that the cell differentiation is the basic event for development of plants and it is also referred to as cyto-differentiation. To express its totipotency, a differentiated cell first undergoes the phenomenon of dedifferentiation and then undergoes the re-differentiation phenomenon (Fig. 3). Narrative Essays! Usually the dedifferentiation of the explant leads to the formation of a callus. However, the embryonic explants, sometimes, result in the differentiation of roots or shoots without an vs usa intermediary callus state. Thus, from the above account it is clear that unlike animals (in which differentiation is irreversible usually), the plants have such a quality that even highly mature and differentiated cells have an ability to revert back to meristematic state. The property of totipotency of plant cells indicate that even the undifferentiated cells of narrative essays, a callus carry the essential genetic information required for regeneration of a whole plant. It is also clear that all the genes responsible for dedifferentiation or re-differentiation are present within the individual cells and they become active for expression under adequate culture conditions.
As totipotent cells are the basis of whole plant tissue culture techniques, so, by the exploitation of this potential of plant cells, biotechnologists are trying to improve the crop plants and soviet union other commercially important plants. Totipotency in Different Plant Parts: The somatic cells in plant body are totipotent. It is to be noted here that only the living plant cells have the ability to regenerate and the dead cells which lack cytoplasm and nucleus (tracheids, vessel elements, etc.) are not totipotent at personal narrative, all. Different plant parts have different totipotent abilities. For example, in tobacco plant, the soviet vs usa type of bud formed by in-vitro culture of the epidermis of personal essays, different regions of the plant are different in their form. Another example to add here may be given about the totipotency of characters, crown-gall cells which have the capacity to narrative, grow as an Essay Avco Environmental un-organised mass of cells under normal conditions, however whole plants can be recovered from them in culture. Thus, it is personal essays, clear that totipotency is not similar in all plant parts. Cellular totipotency of has Limited, plants cells has proved to be a boon to personal narrative essays, mankind as it is the basis of plant tissue culture. The plant tissue culture exploits this unique property of vs usa, plant-cells to attain commercial benefits.
Various applications of cellular totipotency are: i. It has potential applications in personal the crop plant improvement. ii. Micro-propagation of labour party uk policies, commercially important plants. iii. Production of artificial or synthetic seeds. iv.
It helps in conservation of germplasm (genetic resources). v. This ability is utilized for haploid productions. vi. Applied in producing somatic hybrids and cybrids. vii. Helps in cultivation of essays, those plants whose seeds are very minute and difficult to germinate. viii. Also helps to study the cytological and histological differentiations. ix.
For high scale and efficient production of secondary metabolites. x. The genotypic modifications can also be possible. While studying totipotency, it is stated that the dedifferentiation and redifferentiation processes result in Ethics: Environmental the differentiated plant organs, finally producing a whole plant. In case of narrative essays, plants, the differentiation is reversible but in animals, it is what in the product, irreversible. The term differentiation describes the development of different cell types as well as the development of personal narrative, organised structures like roots, shoots, buds, etc., from cultured cells or tissue. Differentiation may also be defined in simple words as the development change of a cell which leads to its performance of specialised function. However, normally morphological characteristics. For example, differentiation accounts for the origin of different types of labour uk policies, cells, tissues and narrative essays organs during the formation of vs usa, a complete multicellular organism (or an organ) from a single-celled zygote. Actually, the development of an adult organism starting from personal essays, a single cell occurs as a result of the combined functioning of what are the in the product cycle, cell division and cell differentiation.
Various techniques of personal narrative essays, tissue culture provide not only a scope of what are the stages in the product, studying the factors governing totipotency of cells but also serves for the investigation of patterns and factors controlling the differentiation. As stated earlier also, the plant cells have a tendency to remain in a quiescent stage which may be reverted to the meristematic stage. This process is termed as dedifferentiation and as a result of this, a homogeneous undifferentiated mass of tissue i.e., callus is personal essays, formed. There callus cells then differentiate into different types of soviet union, cells or an personal organ or an embryo. On this basis, the differentiation may be of the following types: (b) Organ Differentiation. (c) Embryo Genic Differentiation. The differentiation of the Realize Our Planet cells is an important event of the development of plants.
The differentiation of essays, different types of cells from the cultured cells is known as cytodifferentiation. When an undifferentiated callus re-differentiates into whole plant, it first undergoes cytodifferentiation. Amongst different cytodifferentiations, the differentiation into vascular tissues has received maximum attention. However, it is important here to what are the four stages in the product life cycle, mention that the cells of narrative essays, mature xylem elements and phloem cells cannot be re-differentiated or cannot be reverted back to the meristematic state due to lack of cytoplasm in them. Although, in initial stages of their development, they can be reverted to meristematic cells. Xylogenesis is the differentiation of parenchymatous cells (of callus) into xylem-like cells of vascular plants. Phloem differentiation is the formation of phloem-cells from parenchyma in culture. Factors affecting cytodifferentiation: (i) Physical factors like light, temperature and union pH are effective at optimum levels. (ii) Chemical factors. a. Low Nitrogen content increases vascularization. b. Narrative Essays! High Ca ++ ions stimulates the formation of tracheids and sieve tubes.
c. Sucrose in high concentration results in pronounced xylem differentiation. Some hormones play important role in cytodifferentiation. a. Auxin plays major role in vascularization. b. Cytokinin promotes cytodifferentiation. c. Gibberellins along with auxins promote it. d. Abscisic acid inhibits it usually. It is synonymous to organogenesis or organogenic differentiation. It refers to the development or regeneration of a complete organised structure (or whole plant) from the cultured cells/tissues (Fig. 4). Organogenesis literally means the birth of organ or the formation of organ.
It may occur either by shoot bud differentiation or by the formation of root. Organogenesis commences with the stimulus produced by the components of culture medium, the substances initially present in the original explants and also by the compounds produced during culturing. Among different organs, which can be induced in Realize Our Planet has Limited Resources Essays plant tissue culture are included the roots, shoots, flower buds and leaves. Essays! Regenerations into flower buds and leaves occur in inferno characters a very low frequency. However, the roots and shoot bud regenerations are quite frequent. Out of all these types of organogenic differentiation, only the shoot bud differentiation can give rise to the complete plantlets therefore, it is of great importance in tissue culture practices. The initiation of roots is termed as rhizogenesis while the initiation of shoots is called as caulogenesis and these two phenomena are affected by alterations in the auxin : cytokinin ratio in the nutrient medium. A group of meristematic cells called as meristemoids is the site of organogenesis in callus. Such meristemoids are capable of personal narrative essays, producing either a root or a shoot.
Organogenesis may occur either through callus formation or through the direct formation of adventitious organs (like adventitious shoot). Latter mode of organogenesis does not involve the intervening callus phase. Shoot bud differentiation was first of all demonstrated by White (1939). Further, in Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay 1944, Skoog indicated that organogenesis could be chemically controlled. Shoot bud differentiation refers to the formation of shoot buds from the cultured cells by providing appropriate culture conditions and nutrient medium. Personal Essays! The chemical and physical factors required for Essays shoot bud differentiation vary for explants from personal narrative, different plant species. Factors affecting organogenesis: (i) Auxin: Cytokinin ratio in medium is an important factor affecting root/shoot bud differentiation in labour party uk policies most plants. (ii) Usually Gibberellic acid inhibits organogenesis. (iii) Physiological state and size of personal narrative, explant play important role in union vs usa organ differentiation. (iv) Genotype of the donor plant plays a crucial role.
(iv) Physical factors like light, temperature, moisture, etc., play effective role in organogenesis. c. Essays! Embryo Genic Differentiation: The embryos formed from the somatic cells of plant in culture under in-vitro conditions are called as somatic embryos. When the somatic cells of plant organs result into the regeneration into embryos, then the has Limited Resources process is called as somatic embryogenesis or embryo genic differentiation or embryogenesis (Fig. 5). Somatic embryos are also referred to personal narrative, as embryoids, and they can be obtained either indirectly (with formation of callus) or directly from the explant without intervening callus formation. Are The Four Stages Product! However, direct embryogenesis is not a normal process because the medium requirement for this is complex.
Somatic embryogenesis under in-vitro conditions was first of all observed by Steward et. al. (1958) in carrot (Daucus carota). Thereafter, somatic embryoids have been induced in many plants namely Citrus, Coffea, Zea mays, etc. To obtain embryoids, there is a requirement of two nutrient media, first for initiation and personal narrative the other medium for proper development of the embryoid. The development of somatic embryo passes through the stages like globular, heart-shaped, torpedo-shaped and finally giving rise to the cotyledonary stage of somatic embryo. A somatic embryo does not have any vascular connection with the explant or callus therefore it can be separated easily. Somatic embryogenesis is not used very frequently for Realize Essays propagation of plants because, the technique is usually difficult and also, there is a high risk of occurrence of mutations. Another major drawback of somatic embryogenesis is that there are greater chances of loss of regenerative capacity on repeated sub-culturing. Factors affecting Embryogenesis: a. Physiological condition and type of explant.
b. Essays! Genotype of donor plant. c. Growth regulators: i. Our Planet Has Limited Resources! Auxin is essential for embryo initiation. ii. Cytokinin promotes embryogenesis. iii. Gibberellins inhibit embryo genic differentiation. iv. Abscisic Acid (ABA) suppresses it. d. Nitrogen and Oxygen concentration. e. Physical factors like temperature and light.
Essay # 8. Methods in personal narrative essays Plant Tissue Culture: There are different methods of culturing plant material. These methods differ on labour party, the basis of explants used and their resultant products. Some of the most popular and advantageous methods in plant tissue culture are discussed below: Cell culture is actually, the process of producing clones of a single cell. Narrative! The clones of cell are the cells which have been derived from the single cell through mitosis and are identical to each other as well as to parental cell. First attempts for cell culture were made by Haberlandt in 1902. What Stages Product Cycle! However, he failed to personal narrative essays, culture single cell but his attempts stimulated other workers to achieve success in this direction.
The method of cell culture is inferno characters, meritorious over other methods of culturing because it serves as the best way to analyse and understand the cell metabolism and effects of different chemical substances on the cellular responses. Single cell culturing is of immense help in crop improvement programmes through the extension of genetic engineering techniques in higher plants. The method of cell culture is done by following three main steps: (a) Isolation of personal, single cell from the intact plant by using some enzymatic or mechanical methods. (b) In-vitro culturing of the single cell utilizing micro chamber technique, or micro drop method or Bergmann cell plating technique (Fig. 6). (c) Testing of cell viability done with the phase contrast microscopy or certain special dyes. It is characters, important to note here that the cell cultures require a suitably enriched nutrient medium and it should be done in dark because light may deteriorate the cell culture. Personal Essays! Large scale culturing of plant cells under in-vitro conditions provides a suitable method for production of large varieties of commercially important phytochemicals.
A culture which consists of cells or cell aggregates initiated by four in the placing callus tissues in personal narrative an agitated liquid medium is called as a suspension culture. The continuous agitation of the liquid medium during a suspension culture is Prefrontal, done by personal narrative using a suitable device called as shaker, most common being the platform/orbital shaker. Agitation with shaker is vs usa, important because it breaks the personal narrative essays cell aggregates into single cell or smaller groups of Business Ethics: Environmental, cells and it helps in maintaining the narrative essays uniform distribution of single cell and groups of cells in the liquid medium. A good suspension is the union one which has high proportion of single cells than the groups of cells. Changes in the nutritional composition of personal narrative, medium may also serve as a useful technique for breakage of larger cell clumps (Fig. 7). The general technique of suspension culture involves basically two types of Our Planet, cultures: batch culture and continuous cultures.
A batch culture is a suspension culture in which cells grow in a finite volume of the culture medium and as a result, medium gradually depletes. Personal Narrative Essays! On the other hand, a continuous suspension culture is the one which is Psychosurgery Essay, continuously supplied with nutrients by the inflow of fresh medium but the culture volume is personal narrative, normally constant. Pioneering attempts for Psychosurgery root culture were made by Robbins and Kotte during 1920s. Later on, many workers tried for achieving successful root cultures. In 1934, it was White who successfully cultured the continuously growing tomato root tips. Subsequently, root culturing of personal essays, a number of plant species of angiosperms as well as gymnosperms has been done successfully. Root cultures are usually not helpful for giving rise to complete plants but they have importances of their own. Our Planet Has Limited Resources! They provide beneficial information regarding the nutritional needs, physiological activities, nodulations, infections by different pathogenic bacteria or other microbes, etc. Shoot cultures have great applicability in the fields of horticulture, agriculture and forestry. The practical application of this method was proposed by Morel and Martin (1952) after they successfully recovered the complete Dahalia plant from shoot-tips cultures. Later on, Morel realized that the technique of shoot culturing can prove to personal, be a potent method for rapid propagation of plants (i.e.
Micro propagation). In this technique, the shoot apical meristem is cultured on a suitable nutrient medium. This is also referred to as Meristem Culture (Fig. 8). The apical meristem of a shoot is the portion which is lying beyond the youngest leaf primordium. Meristem tip culture is also beneficial for recovery of pathogen-free specially virus-free plants through the tissue culture techniques.
Various stages in this culture process are the initiation of culture, shoot multiplication, rooting of shoots and finally the transfer of plantlets to the pots or fields. A protoplast is described as a plasma membrane bound vesicle which consists of a naked cell formed as a result of removal of cell wall. The cell wall can be removed by mechanical or enzymatic methods. In-vitro culturing of protoplasts has immense applications in the field of plant biotechnology. It not only Realize Resources Essays, serves for genetic manipulations in personal plants but also for biochemical and metabolic studies in plants. Realize Essays! For protoplast culture, firstly the protoplasts are isolated from the plants utilizing some chemical or enzymatic procedure. At present, there are available a number of enzymes which have enabled the essays isolation of protoplasts from almost every plant tissue. After isolation of protoplasts, they are purified and then tested for their viability.
Finally the purified viable protoplasts are cultured in-vitro using suitable nutrient medium which is usually either a liquid medium or a semisolid agar medium. Haploid plants are those which contain half the number of chromosomes (denoted by n). Haploids can be exploited for benefits in the studies related to experimental embryogenesis, cytogenetics and plant breeding. Haploids have great significance in field of soviet union vs usa, plant breeding and genetics. They are most useful as the source of homozygous lines. In addition, the in-vitro production of haploids also aids for induction of genetic variabilities, disease resistance, salt tolerance, insect resistance, etc. Presently, attention is being focused on improving the personal frequencies of haploid production in their advantageous utilization for economic plant improvement. There are two approaches for in-vitro haploid production. These are: The technique of production of haploids through anther or microspore culture is termed as androgenesis. It is a method par excellence for union vs usa the large scale production of haploids through tissue culture.
Androgenesis technique for haploid production is personal, based on the in-vitro culture of male gametophyte i.e., microspore of a plant resulting into the production of complete plant from it. Has Limited Resources! It is achieved either by another culture or by essays microspore (pollen) culture. The technique of another culture is quicker for practical purposes and is an efficient method for haploid production. But sometimes during another culture, the plantlets may originate from different other parts of anther also (along with from the pollens). On the other hand, microspore culture is free from soviet union, any uncontrolled effects of the anther wall or other tissues. Microspore culture is ideal method for studying the narrative essays mutagenic and transformation patterns (Fig. 9). It is an alternative source of in-vitro haploid production. It refers to Realize, the production of haploid plant from ovary culture or ovule culture.
The method of gynogenesis for personal narrative haploid production has been successful, so far, in a very few plants only, hence it is not a very popular method for what are the in the life cycle in-vitro production of haploids. Thus, androgenesis is narrative, preferred over gynogenesis. The technique of four stages product life, embryo culture involves the narrative isolation and growth of an embryo under in-vitro conditions to obtain a complete viable plant. First success for embryo culture was made by Hannig in 1904 when he isolated and Essay cultured embryos of two crucifers namely Cochleria and Raphanus. Embryo culture is used widely in the fields of essays, agriculture, horticulture and union vs usa forestry for production of hybrid plants. This technique allows the detailed study about the nutritional requirements of embryos during different developmental stages. Also, it helps for identifying the regeneration potential of embryos. Embryo culture is advantageous for in-vitro micro propagation of plants, overcoming seed dormancy and for production of beneficial haploid plants. 8. Endosperm Culture (Triploid Production): Endosperm tissue is triploid therefore the plantlets originating by the culture of endosperm are also triploid. In majority of flowering plant families (exceptions being Orchidaceae, Podostemaceae, Trapaceae which lack endosperm) the endosperm tissues are present.
Endosperm is formed after the double fertilization of personal, one male nucleus with two polar nuclei. Immature endosperm has more potential of growth in culture especially among the cereals. Endosperm culture has provided a novel strategy for plant breeding and horticulture for the production of triploid plantlets. It is an easy method for production of a large number of triploids in one step. Moreover, it is much more convenient that the conventional techniques like chromosome doubling by crossing tetraploids with diploids for triploid induction. Full triploid plants of endosperm origin have been produced in a number of plant species like Populus, Oryza sativa, Emblica officinalis, Pyrus malus, Prunus, etc. The triploid plants are usually seedless therefore this technique is most beneficial for increasing the commercial value of Prefrontal Lobotomies Essay, fruits like apple, mango, grapes, watermelon, etc.
In addition to all the above described applications, endosperm culture is helpful for studying biosynthesis and metabolism of certain natural products also. Essay # 9. Applications of Plant Tissue Culture: 1. Germplasm conservation mainly in the form of cryopreservation of somatic embryos or shoot apices, etc. 2. Large scale production of useful compounds and secondary metabolites by using genetically engineered plant tissue cultures. 3. Technique of micro propagation for enhancing the rate of multiplication of economically important plants. 4. Eradication of systemic diseases in plants and raising disease free plants. 5. Soma-clonal variations are useful sources of introduction of valuable genetic variations in plants. 6. Helps plants in imparting resistance to antibiotics, drought, salinity, diseases, etc. 7. Somatic hybrids and cybrids overcome species barriers and sexual incompatibility and produce hybrid plants with desired combination of traits. 8. Embryo culture helps in overcoming seed sterility and dormancy. 9. Haploid production in culture helps to solve various problems of genetic studies and thus aids the plant breeders for producing new varieties.
10. Personal! Production of synthetic seeds via somatic embryo differentiation for commercially important plants helps to achieve increased agricultural production. 11. Large scale production of biomass energy. 12. Plant tissue culture aids in producing the soviet union vs usa genetically transformed plants. 13. Early flowering can be induced by narrative essays in-vitro culturing of plants so as to four in the product life cycle, attain commercial benefits. 14. Triploids as well as polyploid plants can also be produced by tissue culture techniques for uses in plant breeding, horticulture and forestry.
15. Seedless fruits and vegetables can be produced by following the endosperm culture method which add to their commercial values. 16. Increased Nitrogen fixation ability can be achieved through association of tissue culture techniques with genetic engineering. 17. Callus cultures are useful in narrative plant pathology as they act as an party effective tool in the study of mechanism of disease resistance and susceptibility.
18. Different tissue culture techniques help us to study various biosynthetic processes, physiological changes and cytogenetic changes. Literal meaning of the term morphogenesis is origin of form. It includes all the activities which are involved in the formation of a complete individual starting from the cells/tissues in culture. Various internal as well as external factors affect the morphogenic potential of the cells.
The study of essays, such factors and their effect on the regeneration of cells constitutes the morphogenesis. The appearance of the plants may be altered by the changes in growth environment. The causal factors of Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay, such changes may be studied properly by morphogenesis. Morphogensis may also be termed as developmental morphology and it may be defined as the branch of biology that deals with the causes and activities during the personal narrative essays organization of a complete individual plant. Another definition of morphogenesis can be given as the study of various factors which affect the organic form and describe the growth patterns of the Business Ethics: individual. All those anatomical and physiological events which are involved in the growth and development of an organism are included in the morphogenetic studies. Differences in the morphogenetic phenomena lead to the differences in narrative essays the form of characteristic organs or structures. In simple words, morphogenesis may be described as the developmental pathways in differentiation as a result of which the recognizable tissues are formed.
Cell culturing has blossomed into Realize has Limited such a technology which is capable of solving a number of problems with an impact on morphogenesis of plants. This is so because, through the elegant system of plant cell/tissue culture, it is possible to have an effective control of exogenous factors which affect the differentiation starting with the callus or a single cell or tissue. There are many such factors which influence the morphogenic potential of cells by affecting important developmental activities. For e.g., i. Personal Essays! Several experiments have shown that certain growth factors (like cytokinin) induce the Psychosurgery Prefrontal Essay somatic embryos in culture by changing the personal narrative essays cell polarity. ii. Some chemical factors promote asymmetric divisions in the cultured cells thus resulting in difference in form. iii.
Different concentrations of 2, 4-D, auxins, etc. alter the Psychosurgery Essay development of organ in culture by causing the altered cell elongation or rate of cell division. iv. With the increase in culture duration, the organogenic differentiation shows decline. Personal Narrative Essays! All such examples show that different factors have different type of effect on different developmental activities. Such dynamic and causal aspects of organic forms are studied in morphogenesis. A list of the factors having great importance in deciding the morphogenic pattern is Realize Our Planet has Limited Resources Essays, given below: i. Physical factors like light, temperature, pH. ii. Chemical factors like C/N ratio, oxygen content, carbohydrates (sugar) concentrations, etc. iii. Growth hormones like Auxin, Cytokinin, Gibberellins, ABA, etc.
v. Culture duration. vi. Mechanical strains, pressures, bending, etc., may cause changes in plane of cell division, thus may cause difference in morphogenic potential. vii. The regenerability of explant may be affected by factors like the organ from which it is taken, the physiological state of the explant, its size, etc. viii.
Electrical stimulation. ix. Changes in gene expression in cells in culture. x. Genotype and status of nucleic acids in different cells. xi. Repeated subculture of a totipotent callus may also result in reduction or complete loss of personal essays, morphogenetic potential.
As described above, morphogenesis includes all those events which occur during the growth and development of an organism. Realize Has Limited Resources Essays! Thus, it is very important for providing a satisfactory explanation of various biological growth patterns. It also aims on studying and correlating different environmental factors with changes in the morphogenetic patterns and/or potential. Major contributions for morphogenetic studies in India have been provided by Department of Botany, University of Delhi. Numerous experiments on a wide variety of subjects were performed by the department to study the morphogenesis by narrative essays utilizing tissue culture techniques. De-novo organ initiation and formation under aseptic culture form a fascinating subject to study the effect of different factors on the morphogenetic patterns. Different objectives of morphogenesis are summarized below: i. To study the biological growth patterns like polarity, symmetry, differentiation, etc. ii. To provide an explanation to all such growth patterns. iii.
To relate morphogenesis with other major biological sub sciences. iv. Advantageous utilization of tissue culture techniques to study morphogenetic patterns. v. Determining interacting influence of growth hormones in Ethics: Avco Environmental shoots or root regeneration. vi. To study the effects of repeated sub-culturing on the regeneration potential of a totipotent callus. vii. To analyse the growth regulation in differentiation of personal essays, plant species by trial and error. viii. Study of characters, effect of osmotic inhibition using high levels of sucrose during shoot formation. ix.
Study of role of light and temperature in flowering. x. Exploring the correlation between nuclear state and potential for differentiation and regeneration. Essay # 11. Personal! Subculture or Secondary Cell Culture: The process of transferring the cultured cells in a fresh nutrient medium is called as sub-culturing, and the cell cultures which are sub-cultured (i.e., inoculated in a separate medium) are called as subculture or secondary cell cultures or secondary cell lines. It is what are the four in the life, important to subculture the organ and tissues to fresh medium to avoid the condition of personal narrative, nutrition depletion and what four stages in the drying of medium. It is possible to maintain the personal plant cell and tissue cultures for indefinitely long time durations if they are regularly subculture in a serial manner (Fig.
10). Soma clonal variations may be defined as those variations which occur in the cultured cells/tissues or plants regenerated from soviet, such cells in-vitro. Soma clonal variations are usually heritable for personal essays qualitative as well as quantitative characters of plants. Soviet Union! Soma clonal variants have proved as an alternate tool to personal, plant breeding for production of improved varieties of plants. Gene mutations and changes in inferno characters the structure, number of chromosomes are the main causes of production of personal narrative essays, soma clonal variants.
A number of new varieties of labour, cereals, oil seeds, fruits, tomatoes, etc., possessing disease resistance, better quality, better yield etc., have been generated through soma clonal variations. Some of those crop species are potato, tomato, oats, wheat, rice, maize, datura, carrot, soybean, etc. In simple words, the variability which is generated by the use of a tissue culture cycle is personal narrative essays, termed as soma clonal variation. Inferno Characters! Soma clones is a general term which is used to describe those plants which have been derived from any type of somatic cell cultures. Essay # 13. Somatic Hybrids and Cybrids: Somatic hybridization may be described as the production of hybrid cells by the fusion of protoplasts of somatic cells derived from two different plant species/varieties. It is immensely helpful for generating new and improved hybrid varieties of plant that may have characters of a completely different species. For example, Pomato is a somatic hybrid which is produced by the fusion of protoplast of somatic cells from potato and tomato which are totally different species. A cybrid is personal essays, a cytoplasmically hybrid cell which has the cytoplasm of both fusing cells but nucleus of only one fusing cell. The process of production of a cybrid is called cybridisation.
Steps involved in somatic hybridization/cybridization (Fig. II) are given below: a. Protoplast isolation from parent plant using any mechanical or enzymatic method. b. Fusion of isolated protoplasts derived from soviet union, two different parents either by utilizing chemical fusogens (like NaNO 3 , Polyethylene Glycol or high pH-high Ca ++ treatment) or by the electro-fusion method. c. Selection of the hybrid cells is done after fusion process. d. Narrative Essays! The selected somatic hybrids/cybrids are then verified for hybridity. This is done to check whether the hybrid is carrying the desired characteristics of four in the product life, both parents or not. e. On successful verification and characterization, the somatic hybrids or cybrids are cultured for regenerating into the plantlets with desired characters. Somatic hybridization overcomes the essays sexual incompatibility barriers and it enables to produce interspecific as well as inter-generic crosses in plants. It helps in imparting disease-resistances and improving the quality characters in plants. It is an immensely beneficial tool for study of cytoplasmic genes and their expressions.
Tissue culture helps in the rapid propagation of plants by the technique of labour party uk policies, micro-propagation or clonal propagation in-vitro. The asexually produced progeny of a cell or individual is called as clone and the clones have an identical genotype. Micro propagation is the technique of in-vitro production of the clones of plants i.e., it produces the progeny plants which have an identical genotype as their parents, by cell, tissue or organ culture (Fig. 12). It helps in the production of personal narrative, plants in large number starting from a single individual. It serves as an alternate method to conventional vegetative propagation methods. Micro propagation may be achieved by shoot tips, axillary buds, adventitious buds, bulbs or somatic embryos. A number of Ethics:, plant species are being clonally propagated in vitro, specially the commercially valuable plants like orchids and forest trees.
Some of the important plants that have been micro propagated on narrative, large scales are: Orchids like Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Aranda, Vanda, Odontoma, Vanilla, etc. Forest trees like Tectona grandis, Biota, Cedrus deodara, Eucalyptus, Picea, Pinus, etc. The technique of micro propagation generally involves four stages. Each of Business Avco, these stage has its own requirements.
The stages in general technique of micro-propagation are described below: Stage I. Initiation: This stage also involves the preparatory process for achieving better establishment of aseptic cultures of narrative, explant. Suitable explant is selected from the Lobotomies mother plant. Then, the explant is sterilized and transferred to the nutrient medium for narrative essays culture. State II. Multiplication: This is the most important stage of micro propagation. In this stage, there occurs the labour proliferation or multiplication of shoots (or embryoids) from the explant on medium. It occurs either by the formation of an intermediary callus or by essays induction of adventitious buds directly from the explant. Stage III.
Sub-culturing: The shoots are transferred to rooting medium (sub-cultured) to form roots. As a result, complete plantlets are obtained. Stage IV. Transplantation: In this stage, the regenerated plantlets are transferred out of culture. These are grown in pots followed by field trials.
1. Rapid multiplication of disease free plants. 2. Rapid multiplication of commercially important plants. 3. Maintenance of genetic uniformity. 4. Labour Uk Policies! Technique does not depend on seasons and is capable of producing plants all round the year. 5. Technique is valuable in cases where only limited explant is available. 1. The technique is costly. 2. It requires proper skill. 3. Many tree crops, including gymnosperms, cannot be multiplied by clonal propagation. 4. Clonal propagation in narrative some cases may lead to the formation of off-types rather than clones, after many generations. 5. If culture is contaminated, then the pathogen gets multiplied to very high levels and becomes difficult to handle.
These are also called as synthetic seeds. These are living seed like structures which are capable of giving rise to plants when sown in labour party uk policies the field. An artificial seed is personal essays, made of a somatic embryo (S.E.) encapsulated with a protective layer of Psychosurgery Prefrontal, a gel which protects it from narrative essays, desiccation or microbial attack (Fig. 13). It means preservation at ultralow temperature: This technique is used mainly for long term storage of germplasm and thus helps in conservation of nature also.
Plant tissues and organs are cryopreserved usually in liquid Nitrogen which has a temperature of party uk policies, 196°C. Cryopreservation technique has proved to be one of the most reliable methods for long term storage and preservation of plant germplasm in the form of pollens, shoot-tips, embryos, callus, protoplasts, etc. Although, this is a very advantageous technique but it suffers from a major difficulty of formation of ice-crystals during freezing and/or thawing. These ice-crystals may cause damage to the preserved material. Personal Narrative Essays! To prevent the formation of ice-crystals during cryopreservation, some special chemicals are used which are called as cryoprotectants. A few common cryoprotectants are glycol, sucrose, proline, Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), Polyethyleneglycol (PEG), etc..
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